, Farmingdale, NY, USA), P53 antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc., Santa Cruz, CA, USA; 1:1,000 dilution), β-actin (Santa Cruz, 1:1,000), caspase 3, 7 (Cell Signaling Technology Inc., Danvers, MA, USA; 1:1,000), and then reacted with anti-rabbit or anti-goat secondary antibodies (1:10,000; Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA, USA). Immunoreactivity was detected with luminol reagent (GE, Munich, Germany). Statistics Continuous normally distributed variables were represented graphically as mean ± standard deviation (SD). For statistical comparison of quantitative data between groups, analysis of variance (ANOVA) or t test was performed. To determine differences
between groups not normally distributed, medians were Ruboxistaurin cell line compared using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA. The χ 2 test was used when necessary for qualitative data. Selleckchem GW786034 The degree of association between variables was assessed using Spearman’s non-parametric correlation. All statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS software version 13.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago,
IL, USA). Probabilities of 0.05 or less were considered to be statistically significant. Results and discussion Characterization of SWNHs The result of elemental composition determination of the SWNHs material used in this work is shown in Additional file 1: Table S1. The result showed that the material contained 95.3% of carbon. The content of each of the transition metals was less than 0.1%. The total metal content was about 0.25%. Due to catalyst-free Mirabegron preparation method of the material, its metal impurities are from the graphite raw material. The adsorptive isotherm plot and BJH pore size distribution of SWNHs material are shown in Additional file 1: Figures S1 and S2. The result showed that BET surface area was 631.55m2/g, higher than that reported previously . Single point total pore volume of pores (diameter less than 308.7 nm at P/P 0 0.994) was 1.57 cm3/g. The particle density was
1.0077 g/cm3 (RSD 0.91%). It implies the existence of many closed pores in SWNHs (see Additional file 1). The measurement of SWNHs particle size distribution (Additional file 1: Figure S3) showed that it ranged from 342 to 712 nm in aqueous suspension. An individual SWNHs particle is a dahlia-like spherical aggregate of nanohorns with a diameter of 80 to 100 nm. Thus, our result showed that the particles were secondary Selleckchem NCT-501 aggregations of primary spherical SWNHs aggregates in aqueous suspension. SEM and contact angle measurements of SWNHs-coated dishes SEM images (Additional file 1: Figure S4) showed that SWNHs were individual spherical particles with diameters of 60 to 100 nm on the PS surface. The comparison with the diameter of SWNHs aggregates in aqueous suspension was shown in above section.