Cardiac function

and geometry was determined echocardiogr

Cardiac function

and geometry was determined echocardiographically and the hearts were excised for molecular and immunohistochemical analyses. Echocardiographic studies revealed that four weeks of RAS-stimulation incited a cardiac remodeling process LY3023414 nmr characterized by increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, decreased LV volumes, and shortening of the left ventricle. Hypertrophic genes were highly upregulated, whereas in substantial activation a fibrotic response was absent. Four weeks after withdrawal of I3C, (pro)renin levels were normalized in all IHR. While in adult IHR BP returned to normal, hypertension was sustained in young IHR. Despite the latter, myocardial hypertrophy was fully regressed in both young and adult IHR. We conclude that (pro)renin-induced severe hypertension in IHR causes an age-independent fully reversible myocardial concentric hypertrophic selleck chemicals remodeling, despite a continued elevated BP in young IHR.”
“The recent failure of coronary prevention with torcetrapib, a major inhibitor of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) system, indicated that this therapeutic approach is disputable. Evaluation of prior knowledge confirms that the rationale of CETP inhibition appears to be weak, thus leading to the general conclusion that a rise in HDL-C levels does not necessarily reflect

a better reverse cholesterol transfer system and vice versa. While raising HDL by a variety of pharmaceutical approaches may provide a desirable target, CETP inhibitory treatment is potentially harmful. While torcetrapib raises blood pressure, as underlined by a number of authors, this does not appear to provide a satisfactory explanation for the failure of this treatment, whereas the dramatic increase of cancer and life-threatening Selleck BAY 63-2521 infections in torcetrapib-treated patients gives a serious warning. By contrast, CETP stimulation has recently provided interesting openings for a successful approach to cardiovascular prevention.

In particular, re-evaluation of data on probucol clearly suggest that this drug, while lowering HDL-C because of its mechanism of action, can also reduce carotid intima-media thickness and cause negative arterial remodeling in atherosclerotic conditions. By this last mechanism, probucol would not increase arterial lumen, but could clearly reduce the risk of acute coronary syndromes.”
“Objective: About half the patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) in China need to be assisted by family members or home assistants. We explored whether these patients have a higher risk for peritonitis and death compared with self-care PD patients.

Methods: We prospectively followed 313 incident PD patients until death or censoring. This cohort was divided into assisted and self-care PD groups according to the independence of bag exchange.

A similar multiple load scaling collapse of the plastic strain va

A similar multiple load scaling collapse of the plastic strain variation has also been obtained. The level of precision in strain measurement reported herein was evaluated and found to be 1.5 x 10(-5) or better. c 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3122029]“
“Background: Chronic administration of levodopa in Parkinson’s disease leads to debilitating involuntary movements,

termed levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). The pathogenesis of LID is poorly understood. Previous research has shown that histamine H-2 receptors are highly expressed in the input (striatum) and output (globus pallidus, substantia nigra) regions of the basal ganglia, particularly in the GABAergic striatopallidal and striatonigral pathways. Therefore, CB-839 purchase a histamine H2 receptor antagonist could be used to reduce LID. In the present work, we investigated whether ranitidine has the potential to diminish LID in rats with dyskinesia and explored the underlying mechanisms involved.


A rat model of PD was induced by 6-hydroxydopamine. Valid PD rats were then treated with levodopa (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and benserazide CH5183284 (12.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for 21 days to induce a rat model of LID. The acute and chronic effects of administration of ranitidine at different doses (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg) on abnormal involuntary movements, levodopa-induced rotations, and the forelimb adjusting steps test were investigated in LID rats. The chronic effect of ranitidine (10 mg/kg) on the expression of Arc and proenkephalin was also evaluated.

Results: Levodopa elicited increased LY2835219 research buy dyskinesia in PD rats. Acute ranitidine treatment had no effect on LID, but chronic ranitidine administration (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg) reduced LID in rats with dyskinesia. Importantly, levodopa-induced rotations were not affected by chronic treatment with ranitidine. In addition, chronic ranitidine (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg) significantly improved stepping of the lesioned forepaw. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that Arc and proenkephalin levels were reduced by chronic ranitidine (10 mg/kg)

in dyskinetic rats.

Conclusion: These data indicate that ranitidine is a good adjunct for reducing LID in rats with dyskinesia. Inhibition of dopamine D1-mediated activation in the medium spiny neurons may account for the antidyskinetic effects of ranitidine in rats with dyskinesia.”
“Objectives: To document levels of and changes in physical activity before and after ovarian cancer diagnosis and explore associations with psychosocial outcomes.

Methods: Of 1207 eligible Australian Ovarian Cancer Study (AOCS) participants, 798 participated in an additional prospective Quality of Life (QoL) Study which measured anxiety, depression and QoL at 3-6 monthly intervals for 2 years beginning 3-48 months after diagnosis.

As a result of this considerable research activity, three new the

As a result of this considerable research activity, three new therapies; cabazitaxel,

sipuleucel-T and abiraterone acetate, have each demonstrated improvement in overall survival in phase III trials and have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. With so many new therapies now available and in the pipeline, the management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer is undergoing a significant and positive change. This article discusses current and future options for second-line therapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, providing insight into the potential roles of these new treatment options in the Australian clinical setting.”
“We this website present a comprehensive scalar light-scattering model for the optical simulation of silicon thin film solar cells. The model integrates coherent light propagation in thin layers with a direct, non-iterative treatment of light scattered at rough layer interfaces. The direct solution approach ensures computational efficiency, which is a key advantage for extensive calculations in the context of evaluation of different BAY 80-6946 solubility dmso cell designs and parameter extraction. We validate the model with experimental external quantum efficiency spectra of state-of-the-art

microcrystalline silicon solar cells. The simulations agree very well with measurements for cells deposited on both rough and flat substrates. The model is then applied to study the influence of the absorber layer thickness on the maximum achievable photocurrent for the two cell types. This efficient numerical framework will enable a quantitative model-based assessment of the optimization potential for light trapping in textured thin film silicon solar cells. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3622328]“
“An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of continual fluctuations in feed intake on grower-finisher pig growth performance and carcass fat-to-lean ratio

(F:L). Sixty individually housed female pigs (Landrace x Large White) with initial BW of 29.8 +/- 0.4 kg were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 feeding regimens (n = 15):1) ad libitum throughout (AL); 2) 85% of the mean intake of the AL group during the previous EX 527 purchase week (R); 3) 70% of the mean intake on 1 d, and on the following day, 100% of the amount consumed by the AL group during the preceding week, with this pattern repeated every 2 d throughout (D); and 4) 70% of the mean intake for 3 consecutive days, and 100% of the amount consumed by the AL group for the next 3 d, with this pattern repeated throughout the experiment (3-D). Pigs receiving each treatment were fed the same diets during the weaner (10 to 20 kg), grower (20 to 50 kg), finisher 1 (50 to 70 kg), and finisher 2 (70 kg to slaughter at approximately 104 kg) growth phases.

Since GHSTs are imprecise, other diagnostic tools have been propo

Since GHSTs are imprecise, other diagnostic tools have been proposed. We assessed whether auxology, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 measurements followed by brain MRI and genetic analysis can replace the current diagnostic approach.

Methods: Fifty-three children diagnosed with GILD by two different GHSTs. GH-1 gene was sequenced.

Results; At presentation, 17% of patients were with height above -1.5 SD and 28% above -2.0 SD; 50% had IGF-1 concentration above -1.5 SD and 58% above -2.0 SD; 59% had pituitary anomalies demonstrated by MRI. Fourteen patients harbored the heterozygous R183H mutation, one patient had the N47D

mutation and one had a novel F25Y mutation in GH-1. Using cut-off levels of -1.5 SD for height, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 excluded the diagnosis of GHD in 17, 68 and 79% of the children,

respectively; a cut-off of -2 SD excluded 28, learn more 88 and 96%, respectively. Further Blebbistatin brain MRI and genetic tests excluded 81-96% and 96-100%, respectively, of children currently diagnosed with GH.

Conclusion: Use of the tested approach, which avoids carrying out two GHSTs, would exclude most children currently diagnosed with GILD. Until better tools become available, we recommend identifying GILD in children by an integrated approach combining phenotype, auxological parameters, hormonal measurements and two separate GHSTs, with MRI and genetic tests to support the diagnosis.”
“Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal AR-13324 chemical structure developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural

paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research.”
“Evidence suggests that West Nile virus (WNV) neuroinvasive disease occurs more frequently in both solid organ and human stem cell transplant recipients.

After treatment with three infusions of rituximab she showed imme

After treatment with three infusions of rituximab she showed immediate improvements regarding clinical and

laboratory parameters. She received no cytotoxic drugs and remained well Pevonedistat order for at least 7 months, despite stopping prednisolone.”
“Study Design. A comparative in vitro metalloproteinases and their inhibitors gene expression profile.

Objective. To obtain a complete expression profile of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), family of proteases with a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in bovine adult nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and to compare this profile with the expression profile obtained from bovine adult articular chondrocytes cultured under identical conditions.

Summary of Background Data. The cells of the NP resemble articular chondrocytes morphologically but produce a matrix which, though consisting of similar components, has very different biomechanical properties. No specific markers for NP cells have

yet been identified; they can be distinguished from chondrocytes only by differences in gene expression. Here we compare profiles of gene expression of metalloproteinases and their inhibitors between NP cells and chondrocytes to improve understanding of the differences between these cell types.

Methods. NP cells and articular chondrocytes were harvested respectively from bovine caudal discs and CCI-779 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor the articular cartilage of metacarpal-phalangeal joints of 18- to 24-month-old steers. These cells were cultured under identical conditions for 96 hours in alginate beads. Expression levels

of MMPs, ADAMTSs, and TIMPs were detected by real-time RT-PCR.

Results. Gene profiling demonstrated distinct differences between levels of MMPs, ADAMTSs, and TIMPs produced by chondrocytes and NP cells. In particular, NP cells expressed considerably more MMP-2 and MMP-14 than chondrocytes, and expression of ADAMTS-1,-2,-17 and TIMP-1 was also higher. However, expression selleck kinase inhibitor of MMP-1,-3,-7,-8,-10,-11,-13,-16,-19,-20,-21,-23,-24,-28, ADAMTS-4,-5,-6,-14,-18,-19, and TIMP-3 was lower in NP cells than in chondrocytes. Chondrocytes but not NP cells expressed MMP12 and MMP27; this difference is a potential marker for distinguishing between NP cells and chondrocytes.

Conclusion. Because culture conditions and animal age were identical, differences in metalloproteinase and inhibitor expression between NP cells and chondrocytes were intrinsic to cell phenotype and not induced by differences in the in situ extracellular environment.”
“The aptitude of a novel biodegradable material [wheat gluten/montmorillonite (MMT)] to be used as a food-contact material was assessed with a focus on mass transfer from the film into foodstuff (migration). Special attention was paid to the impact of high-pressure treatments and subsequent storage. Several aspects were treated: the migration of a model molecule (Uvitex OB), MMT migration, protein migration, and overall migration.

These data provide a baseline for monitoring interventions to inc

These data provide a baseline for monitoring interventions to increase ACT coverage, such as the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm).

Methods: Nationally representative household surveys were conducted in Benin, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), AC220 order Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia between 2008 and 2010. Caregivers responded to questions about management of recent fevers in children under five. Treatment

indicators were tabulated across countries, and differences in case management provided by the public versus private sector were examined using chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to test for association between socioeconomic status and 1) malaria blood testing, and 2) ACT treatment.

Results: PND-1186 in vitro Fever treatment with an ACT is low in Benin (10%), the DRC (5%), Madagascar (3%) and Nigeria (5%), but higher in Uganda (21%) and Zambia (21%). The wealthiest children are significantly more likely to receive ACT compared to the poorest children in Benin (OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.12-6.42); the DRC (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.12-4.24); Madagascar (OR = 5.37, 95% CI = 1.58-18.24); and Nigeria (OR = 6.59, 95% CI = 2.73-15.89). Most caregivers seek treatment outside of the home, and private sector outlets are commonly the sole external source of treatment (except in Zambia). However, children treated in the

public sector are significantly more likely to receive ACT treatment than those treated in the private sector (except in Madagascar). Nonetheless, levels of testing and ACT treatment

in the public sector are low. Few caregivers name the national first-line drug as most effective for treating malaria in Madagascar (2%), the DRC (2%), Nigeria (4%) and Benin (10%). Awareness is higher in Zambia (49%) and Uganda (33%).

Conclusions: Levels of effective fever treatment Small molecule library are low and inequitable in many contexts. The private sector is frequently accessed however case management practices are relatively poor in comparison with the public sector.”
“Objective. Recent studies demonstrate that simvastatin stimulates bone formation, suggesting the potential application in dental implantology. In this study, our lab developed a simvastatin-loaded titanium porous surface. The aim was to investigate the effect of simvastatin-loaded titanium surfaces on the promotion of osteogenesis in preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) in vitro.

Study design. The control group consisted of cells cultured on titanium disks without any intervention for different time intervals (4, 7, and 14 days), and the experimental groups (simvastatin-loaded groups) consisted of cells cultured on titanium disks that were preincubated in varying concentration (10(-7) mol/L, 10(-6) mol/L, 10(-5) mol/L, and 10(-4) mol/L) of simvastatin for the same time intervals of the control group. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, type I collagen synthesis, and osteocalcin release were used to measure the cellular osteoblastic activities.


Fc fusion proteins were digested with IdeS, an IgG specific prote

Fc fusion proteins were digested with IdeS, an IgG specific protease with exosites for substrate recognition and cleavage. The resultant fragments were directly analyzed through liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The structures and relative quantities of Fc glycans were deduced from their masses and intensities. The separated substrate recognition and cleavage property of IdeS makes this method applicable to

a broad range of Fc fusion proteins having either standard or non-canonical hinge regions.”
“Nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia is most commonly attributable to mutations in CYP21A2 (also termed CYP21) encoding steroid 21-hydroxylase. Partial deficiency of this enzyme causes an imbalance in cortisol synthesis with consequent adrenal androgen excess. Unlike more severe forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, this condition is rarely recognized in infants, selleck chemical but rather is a potential cause of premature adrenarche and pubarche in children, virilization in young women, and variable symptoms in young men. This article will review relevant clinical, AZD6244 in vivo hormonal and genetic aspects

of nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia.”
“Objectives: Evaluation of a single-channel linear bone conduction implant sound processor (S-BCI) and a multiple-channel nonlinear bone conduction implant sound processor (M-BCI) with objective and subjective measures in patients with mixed hearing loss.

Study Design: In total, 20 patients with mixed hearing loss were included in the study. For either sound processor aided thresholds and speech perception in quiet with monosyllables were measured. Speech perception in noise was measured with sentences. Two different configurations were used: speech and noise at 0 degrees (S0N0) and speech at 0 degrees and noise at 180 degrees (S0N180). The M-BCI was tested in both omnidirectional and directional mode. Patients were first fitted with the S-BCI and evaluated 3 weeks later. The M-BCI was

fitted and, again 3 weeks later, evaluated. Subjectively, patients compared both sound processors with the APHAB questionnaire.

Results: Aided thresholds were similar for both sound processors in the low- and mid-frequency range. For speech in quiet, no significant differences between LDN-193189 supplier both sound processors were observed. For speech in noise in the S0N0 condition, the M-BCI-thresholds were 1.7 dB (SD, 2.2dB; p = 0.002) more favorable than with S-BCI. For the S0N180 configuration, an improvement of 5.8 dB (SD, 2.8dB; p < 0.001) was seen for the directional mode relative to S-BCI. The APHAB showed statistically significant subjective improvement with the M-BCI on all subscales relative to S-BCI.

Conclusion: Speech intelligibility in noise is better with M-BCI than with S-BCI. This was attributed to better high-frequency gain provided by the M-BCI.

86 Moreover, the dielectric relaxation, which follows the Vogel-

86. Moreover, the dielectric relaxation, which follows the Vogel-Fulcher relationship with T-VF = 706.9 K, f(0) = 1.85 x 10(9) Hz, and E-a = 0.09

eV, further supports spin-glass-like characteristics. Compared with LaAlO3, the abnormal contraction of crystal cell is observed in LBAO, which does not follow the normal Vegard’s law. This can be attributed to the covalent hybridization of the Bi3+ ions with the surrounding O2- ions. The large local displacements at the off-centered Bi position lead to the formation of polarized nanoclusters in the paraelectric matrix and the reorientation of these unstable polarized nanoclusters further results in ferroelectric relaxor behavior. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3660777]“
“The few reports that have been published on the current International Classification of Headache Disorders, Second Edition (ICHD-II), criteria for migralepsy and hemicrania epileptica

have highlighted the considerable confusion regarding this “”hot topic”" within both headache and epilepsy classifications (ICHD-II and International League Against Epilepsy [ILAE]). Indeed, the ICHD-II describes a migraine-triggered seizure as a rare event in which a seizure occurs during migraine aura; on the other hand, hemicrania epileptica is described as an “”ictal headache”" PXD101 research buy that occurs “”synchronously”" with a partial seizure. To confuse matters even further, neither the term migralepsy nor the term hemicrania epileptica is included in the currently used ILAE classification. On the basis of both a review of “”migralepsy”" cases in the literature and 16 additional retrospective multicenter cases, we suggest that the term migraine-triggered seizure or migralepsy be deleted from the ICHD-II classification BMN 673 until unequivocal evidence is provided of its existence, and that the term ictal epileptic headache be introduced into the ILAE classification. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This is an interesting report of

a supraventricular tachycardia in a paced patient with intermittent atrioventricular nodal block. Only electrophysiology testing revealed the correct diagnosis. Images explain how pacemaker timing cycles and refractory periods can confuse an otherwise straightforward diagnosis. (PACE 2010; 13)”
“There is considerable discussion about the relative importance of conserving high quality wilderness areas (i.e. large and intact landscapes) versus conserving areas with high biodiversity values. Places that are needed to achieve one aspect of biodiversity conservation are not necessarily optimal for another which can lead to conflict in assigning conservation priorities. However, both are important for biodiversity conservation, and carry social, economic, and ecological values.

No spreading of methylation into sequences flanking the region of

No spreading of methylation into sequences flanking the region of homology between the hpRNA and the target DNA was detectable. The efficient methylation-directing activity of the intronic hpRNA may indicate a previously unrecognized role of introns, potentially regulating gene expression at the transcriptional level.”
“Purpose: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the predicting PHA-739358 manufacturer value of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography (18F-FDG PET-CT) in the assessment of histological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with osteosarcomas.

Methods: A detailed search

was made in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Web of Knowledge for relevant original articles published in English; methodological quality of the included studies were also assessed. Two reviewers extracted data independently. Sufficient data was presented to construct a 2 x 2 contingency table. Pooled sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios were estimated. A summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) was constructed with the Moses’

constant of linear model. A chi(2) test was performed to test for heterogeneity.

Results: Sapitinib molecular weight Eight studies comprising 178 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for standardized uptake values (SUV) after chemotherapy (SUV2) <= 2.5 were 0.734 (95% CI, 0.537-0.867) and 0.864 (95% CI, 0.510-0.975), for the ratio of standardized uptake values after (SUV2) to before (SUV1) chemotherapy SUV 2: 1 <= 0.5 were 0.690 (95% selleck CI, 0.497-0.833) and 0.653 (95% CI, 0.492 -0.786), the positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR+/LR-) for SUV2 <= 2.5 were 5.397 (95% CI, 1.169 -24.920) and 0.308 (95% CI, 0.165-0.577), for SUV 2:1 <= 0.5 were 1.989 (95% CI, 1.145-3.457) and 0.475 (95% CI, 0.247-0.915). There was no significant difference between-study heterogeneity

for either LR+ or LR- in any of these analyses. The area under the SROC curve for SUV2 <= 2.5 and SUV 2:1 <= 0.5 were 0.81 and 0.72, respectively.

Conclusions: The present meta-analysis showed that 18F-FDG PET-CT scan, as measured by the SUV before and after treatment, SUV2 <= 2.5 and SUV 2:1 <= 0.5 are valuable for predicting the histological response to chemotherapy. SUV2 <= 2.5 have better predicting performance than SUV 2:1 <= 0.5. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Electrospraying technology has been studied in many fields to produce particles of various substances from nanoscale to microscale sizes. Unlike pure liquids, droplets formed by electrospraying that are comprised of polymer solutions undergo additional solidification processes involving solvent evaporation, which primarily determine the particle size and morphology. Herein, the effects of the solvent properties on the morphology and dimensions of solidified particles were systematically studied.

One was a case of infection with Plasmodium falciparum with acute

One was a case of infection with Plasmodium falciparum with acute and convalescent microscopic agglutination test titers for Leptospira serovar icterohaemorrhagiae of 1:200 and 1:1600, respectively. The other was a case of infection with Plasmodium vivax that seroconverted to a titer of 1:3200 for Leptospira serovar batavia. Both patients finally improved with cephalosporins and doxycycline after no significant clinical/biochemical improvement with antimalarials stand-alone. It is proposed that febrile patients with hepato-renal dysfunction should be considered possible co-infection of malaria

and leptospirosis.”
“Echinococcus alveolaris (E. alveolaris) (multi-localaris) is a parasitic agent that commonly affects the liver and poses as a solid mass. In contrast to Echnicoccus granulosus, E. alveolaris tends to invade adjacent structures rather than displace AZD0530 and compress them. Haematogenous dissemination to other organs such as the lungs, brain, or bone is rare. In this case, we report on a 34-year old woman with a history of liver segmentectomy due to E. alveolaris infestation and the disease beta-catenin inhibitor disseminated to the lungs. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed

multiple opacities and mixed signal intensities in the lungs, mimicking metastatic disease. The biopsy proved that the lesions were a result of metastasis of E. alveolaris.”
“Background: Napabucasin cost Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common type of primary brain tumor in adults, is driven by cells with neural stem (NS) cell characteristics. Using derivation methods developed for NS cells, it is possible to expand tumorigenic stem cells continuously in vitro. Although these glioblastoma-derived neural stem (GNS) cells are highly similar to normal NS cells, they harbor mutations typical of gliomas and initiate authentic tumors following orthotopic xenotransplantation. Here, we analyzed GNS and NS cell transcriptomes to identify gene expression alterations underlying the disease phenotype.

Methods: Sensitive measurements of gene expression were

obtained by high-throughput sequencing of transcript tags (Tag-seq) on adherent GNS cell lines from three glioblastoma cases and two normal NS cell lines. Validation by quantitative real-time PCR was performed on 82 differentially expressed genes across a panel of 16 GNS and 6 NS cell lines. The molecular basis and prognostic relevance of expression differences were investigated by genetic characterization of GNS cells and comparison with public data for 867 glioma biopsies.

Results: Transcriptome analysis revealed major differences correlated with glioma histological grade, and identified misregulated genes of known significance in glioblastoma as well as novel candidates, including genes associated with other malignancies or glioma-related pathways.