“Biliary tract cancers are a rare subgroup of malignancies

“Biliary tract cancers are a rare subgroup of malignancies that include gall bladder carcinoma

and cholangiocarcinoma. They generally carry a poor prognosis based on the advanced AZD6738 datasheet nature of disease at presentation and overall treatment refractoriness. Surgical resection remains the optimal treatment for long-term survival, with consideration of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapies. In this review, we summarize the role of adjuvant treatments including radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and concurrent chemoradiation with the existing clinical evidence for each treatment decision. Given the rarity of these tumors, the evidence provided is based largely on retrospective studies, Surveillance, Epidemiological, and End Results (SEER) database inquiries, single- or multi-institutional prospective studies, and a meta-analysis of adjuvant therapy studies. Currently, there is no adjuvant therapy that has been agreed upon as a standard of care. Results from prospective, multi-institutional phase II and III trials are awaited, along with advances in molecular targeted therapies and radiation techniques, which will better define treatment standards and improve outcomes in this group of diseases. (c) 2014 Elsevier

Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The present work aims to study the synergistic effect between xanthan gum (X) with a range of hydrocolloids such as barley beta-glucan (Bg), guar gum (G), and konjac-mannan (K) on the viscosity of heat-treated fruit juice based beverages. Lapatinib chemical structure The protective effect of X on the stability of Bg, Tubastatin A mw G, and K in a fruit juice based beverage during processing and storage (0-16 weeks at 4 degrees C or 20 degrees C) was also evaluated. The results showed that pasteurization stabilized viscosity and turbidity

of beverages enriched in Bg and BgX. However, the viscosity of pasteurized beverages enriched in K and G varied with storage time. In general, addition of X showed a complete protective effect against degradation at 4 degrees C for K (KX) whereas it provides no protection at all for G (GX). Viscosity and turbidity of beverages prepared with Bg and BgX increased significantly while those with G and K decreased slightly over time. Viscosity and turbidity changes are rapid when beverages are stored at 20 degrees C. We clearly evidenced that processing and storage treatments along with proper formulation are crucial to ensure technological stability of dietary fibers and X proved to be efficient to stabilize other fibers. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All sights reserved.”
“A new method for the detection of (2) adrenergic agonists was developed based on the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of (2) adrenergic agonist with potassium ferricyanide-luminol CL.

When the 2 tests were discordant, the probability of infection wa

When the 2 tests were discordant, the probability of infection was about 50% in early maternal infection.

Conclusion: Providing reliable probabilities of congenital infection, the PCR and IgM-IgA tests guide clinical management and counseling of parents.”
“Objectives: To characterize invasive Haemophilus influenzae and to examine the population at risk for invasive H. influenzae disease in British Columbia, Canada, 2008-2009.

Methods: H. influenzae recovered from individual patients were characterized by serotyping, biotyping, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and antibiotic Z-VAD-FMK mechanism of action susceptibility testing. Age information was recorded from specimen requisition forms.

Results: Of the 98 cases, 66% were

caused by non-typeable strains, followed by serotypes b (12%), a (10%), f (10%), and e (1%). Cases caused by serotypes b and f and non-typeable strains were mainly in adults over 18 years of age, while cases due to serotype a were mainly in children under the age of 2 years. Different sequence types were found in encapsulated strains according to their serotypes, and non-typeable strains had their own unique sequence types. No capsule switching was documented. Antibiotic resistance was common among non-typeable strains, with 31% identified as genotypic beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains.

Conclusion: Invasive H. influenzae disease in a population vaccinated

against Hib was age-dependent and involved both non-typeable and encapsulated strains. Adults were susceptible to invasive diseases due to non-typeable Cyclosporin A purchase and serotype b and f strains, while in children, most diseases were due to serotype a bacteria. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published IPI-145 cost by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.”

only neuronal death but also neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss underlie the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease as direct causes of the memory deficit. Extracts of Siberian ginseng (the rhizome of Eleutherococcus senticosus) were shown to have protective effects on the regeneration of neurites and the reconstruction of synapses in rat cultured cortical neurons damaged by amyloid beta (A beta)(25-35), and eleutheroside B was one of the active constituents. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of constituents was conducted to explore active components from Siberian ginseng which can protect against neuritic atrophy induced by A beta(25-35) in cultured rat cortical neurons. The ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions from the methanol extract of Siberian ginseng showed protective effects against A beta-induced neuritic atrophy. Twelve compounds were isolated from the active fractions and identified. Among them, eleutheroside B, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin showed obvious protective effects against A beta(25-35)-induced atrophies of axons and dendrites at 1 and 10 mu M.

1 mol L-1 NaCl achieved removal in just a few seconds The proces

1 mol L-1 NaCl achieved removal in just a few seconds. The process was then tested in the pre-chlorination effluent at 2.1 mA cm(-2) and inherent conditions; complete E. coli killing and EE2 removal occurred in just 1.5 and 3.5 min, respectively, while overall estrogenicity (assessed by the YES assay) and residual organic matter (in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD))

decreased by 50% and 85% after 30 min, respectively. These results clearly show the potential of BBD electrochemical oxidation to serve as an efficient tertiary wastewater treatment. (C) 2011 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective-To identify published reports regarding BIBF1120 zoonotic pathogen infection among veterinarians.

Design-Literature review.

Procedures-The PubMed electronic database of medical literature published between 1966 and November 2007 was searched. Clinical case reports and reports of outbreak investigations were also identified through searches of the literature outside of PubMed and searches of references listed in included articles. Reports eligible for inclusion included controlled and uncontrolled studies examining seroprevalence of animal pathogens in veterinarians, serosurveys involving GSK461364 in vivo veterinarians, and reports of zoonotic pathogen infections causing clinical illness.

Results-66 relevant articles were identified.

This included 44 seroepidemiologic studies (some examined > 1 pathogen), 12 case reports, 3 outbreak investigations, and 7 self-reported surveys (including 4 related to personal protective equipment use). Of the 44 seroepidemiologic studies, 37 (84%) identified an increased

risk of zoonotic pathogen infection among veterinarians, and 7 (16%) identified no increased risk or a decreased selleckchem risk. Surveys also documented that veterinarians often failed to use recommended personal protective equipment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Our review indicated that veterinarians had an increased risk of infection with a number of zoonotic pathogens. It also suggested that veterinarians may inadvertently serve as biological sentinels for emerging pathogens and could potentially spread zoonotic pathogens to their families, community members, and the animals for which they provide care. Professional and policy measures should be implemented to reduce the risk that veterinarians will become infected with, or transmit, zoonotic pathogens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009;234:1271-1278)”
“This study aimed to determine the neurodevelopmental (ND) outcome for children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) at early school age. English-speaking patients who underwent the Norwood procedure between 2000 and 2005 were eligible at 4-6 years of age for ND testing. Of the 72 eligible patients, 44 (61 %) agreed to participate, and 37 completed ND testing before the close of the study. Three subjects were excluded from analyses due to late stroke.

In particular, very little information is available regarding rot

In particular, very little information is available regarding rotator cuff integrity after operative repair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and anatomic healing rate after arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial (>50%) thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon.

Methods: Forty-one consecutive patients (forty-two shoulders) who had undergone arthroscopic conversion of a partial-thickness rotator cuff tear to a full-thickness tear and subsequent

repair were evaluated with ultrasound for evidence of rotator cuff healing. Clinical outcomes were assessed with use of validated outcomes measures, and all patients were reexamined by an independent observer.

Results: The average patient age was fifty-three years. Thirty-seven (88%) of the forty-two

shoulders VX-661 purchase Selleckchem AZD1480 had an intact rotator cuff repair seen on ultrasound at an average of eleven months postoperatively. The remaining five patients had a full-thickness defect in the tendon. The mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score improved from 46.1 points preoperatively to 82.1 points at the time of follow-up. The overall rate of patient satisfaction was 93%. The average age of the patients with an intact rotator cuff was 51.8 years compared with 62.6 years for those with a persistent defect (p = 0.02).

Conclusions: Arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears results in a high rate of tendon healing. Patient age is an important factor in tendon healing.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.”
“Type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS H) pathway has been recently reported as an attractive targeting for their efficacy against infections caused by multi-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Among the related FAS 11 enzymes, beta ketoacyl-acyl

carrier protein synthase (KAS), is an essential target for novel antibacterial drug design. Five novel Ethyl-3-(4-substituted phenyl) propanoates have been synthesized, characterized and screened for antibacterial activity. The inhibitory activities against Escherichia coli b-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (ecKAS FHPI III) were investigated by molecular docking simulation. Compounds which posses both good inhibitory activity and well binding affinities were compared their antibacterial activities against gram negative and gram-positive bacterial strains were tested, expecting to exploit potent antibacterial agent with broad-spectrum antibiotics activity. Compounds 4b, 4c, 4d exhibits significant activity and ethyl-3-(4-chlorophenyl)propanaoate (4b) exhibits highest antibacterial activity against all the bacteria among the synthesized compounds.”
“The clinical use of adalimumab and infliximab, human anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha monoclonal antibodies, for psoriasis began in January 2010.

Similar traits are identified in relation to depression The obje

Similar traits are identified in relation to depression. The objective of the study was to elucidate the relationship between the parkinsonian personality and depression. Thirty-two depressed and 86 nondepressed PD patients and 30 healthy control subjects completed the NEO-Personality Inventory Revised Short Version. PD patients with depression displayed a distinct personality profile, with increased Neuroticism and reduced Extroversion, as compared with nondepressed PD patients and control subjects. It seems plausible that a subgroup of PD patients possesses a distinct personality profile that renders them sensitive to development of depression, although the reverse might also be possible.

(The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011; 23:48-55)”
“Plants use sunlight this website as energy for photosynthesis; however, plant DNA is exposed to the harmful effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-320 nm) in the process. UV-B radiation damages nuclear, chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA by the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), which are the primary UV-B-induced DNA lesions, and are a principal cause of UV-B-induced growth inhibition in plants.

Repair of CPDs is therefore essential for plant survival while exposed to UV-B-containing sunlight. Nuclear repair of the UV-B-induced CPDs involves the photoreversal of CPDs, photoreactivation, which is mediated by CPD photolyase that monomerizes the CPDs in DNA by using the energy of near-UV

and visible light (300-500 nm). To date, the CPD repair processes in plant chloroplasts and mitochondria remain poorly understood. Here, we report the photoreactivation Staurosporine research buy of CPDs in chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA in rice. Biochemical and subcellular localization analyses using rice strains with different levels of CPD photolyase activity and transgenic rice strains showed that full-length CPD photolyase is encoded by a single gene, not a splice variant, and is expressed and targeted not only to nuclei but also to chloroplasts and mitochondria. The results indicate that rice may have evolved a CPD photolyase that functions in chloroplasts, mitochondria and nuclei, and that contains DNA to protect cells from the harmful effects of UV-B radiation.”
“Research on the diversity, evolution and stability selleck compound of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour.

In addition, samples for which a magnesium precursor flux had bee

In addition, samples for which a magnesium precursor flux had been present during the coalescence of the GaN stripes also exhibited p-type doping. From an analysis of the spatial distribution of the unintentional doping in the ELOG material, it has been possible to propose that the incorporation of the n-type dopant was slower on the (0001) facet than the 11 (2) over bar2 facets. This facet dependent difference in incorporation rates also helps to explain the nonuniformity in thickness of n-type conductive layers seen at the GaN/sapphire interface when a three-dimensional,growth

mode is employed in the early stages of growth. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3259379]“
“Oxidation of dopamine to aminochrome seems to be a normal process leading LDK378 supplier to aminochrome polymerization to form neuromelanin, since normal individuals have this pigment in their dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The neurons lost in individuals with

Parkinson’s disease are dopaminergic see more neurons containing neuromelanin. This raises two questions. First, why are those cells containing neuromelanin lost in this disease? Second, what is the identity of the neurotoxin that induces this cell death? We propose that aminochrome is the agent responsible for the death of dopaminergic neurons containing neuromelanin in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. The normal oxidative pathway of dopamine, in which aminochrome polymerizes to form neuromelanin, can be neurotoxic if DT-diaphorase selleck is inhibited under certain conditions. Inhibition of DT-diaphorase allows two neurotoxic reactions to proceed: (i) the

formation of aminochrome adducts with alpha-synuclein, which induce and stabilize the formation of neurotoxic protofibrils; and (ii) the one electron reduction of aminochrome to the neurotoxic leukoaminochrome o-semiquinone radical. Therefore, we propose that DT-diaphorase is an important neuroprotective enzyme in dopaminergic neurons containing neuromelanin.”
“Nanoparticles of tin dioxide embedded in silica matrix were synthesized by ion implanting a Sn+ ion beam in a silica slide and by annealing, in oxidizing atmosphere at 800 degrees C. A detailed structural and optical characterization was performed by using glancing incidence x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Metallic tetragonal, beta-tin crystalline nanoparticles were formed in the as-irnplanted sample. The annealing in oxidizing atmosphere promotes the total oxidation of the tin nanoparticles with a preferential migration of the nanoparticles toward the surface of the matrix. A broad blue-violet emission band peaked at 388 nm was observed in the photoluminescence spectra of both the as-implanted and annealed samples, which was attributed to the Sn-related oxygen deficiency center defects and the SnO2 nanoparticles, respectively. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.

I used a diverse collection of 13,501 high-quality full-length se

I used a diverse collection of 13,501 high-quality full-length sequences to assess each of these questions. First, alignment quality had a significant impact on distance values and downstream analyses. Specifically, the greengenes alignment, which does a poor job of aligning variable regions, predicted higher genetic diversity, richness, and phylogenetic diversity than the SILVA and RDP-based alignments.

Second, the effect of different gap treatments in determining pairwise genetic distances was strongly affected by the variation in sequence length for a region; however, the effect of different calculation methods was subtle when determining the sample’s richness or phylogenetic diversity for a region. Third, applying a sequence mask to remove variable positions

had a profound impact on genetic distances HIF inhibitor by muting the observed richness and phylogenetic diversity. Finally, the genetic distances calculated Selleckchem U0126 for each of the variable regions did a poor job of correlating with the full-length gene. Thus, while it is tempting to apply traditional cutoff levels derived for full-length sequences to these shorter sequences, it is not advisable. Analysis of beta-diversity metrics showed that each of these factors can have a significant impact on the comparison of community membership and structure. Taken together, these results urge caution in the design and interpretation of analyses using pyrosequencing data.”
“This study examined the effects of

oil concentration and pH on the emulsifying and foaming characteristics of sesame protein concentrate (SESPC). SESPC was obtained through a simplified process, and its properties were compared with those of a commercial soybean concentrate (SOYPC). The simplified process did not affect the functional characteristics of SESPC, which were often similar or superior selleck chemicals llc to those of the SOYPC. The maximum emulsifying capacity of SESPC was 38% at an acidic and alkaline pH, while the maximum emulsifying capacity of SOYPC was 44% at the same pH. Emulsifying capacity increased significantly as oil concentration increased; in SESPC, this capacity increased from 7.8 to 60.0%, while in SOYPC it increased from 7.6 to 68.2%. The emulsion stability of SESPC was greater at an acidic pH (51%) than at an alkaline pH (45%); it was also higher than the emulsion stability of SOYPC. The maximum emulsion stability of SESPC (96%) was obtained at a sample concentration greater than 55 g L(-1) and oil concentration lees than 550 g L(-1) oil. Minimum (118.3%) and maximum (240%) levels of SESPC foaming capacity were higher than those obtained for SOYPC (92% as maximum). These findings show that SESPC may have potential use as raw matter in the food industry.

“Casearia esculenta root (Roxb ) is widely used in traditi

“Casearia esculenta root (Roxb.) is widely used in traditional system of medicine to treat diabetes in India. An active compound, 3-hydroxymethyl xylitol (3-HMX), has been isolated, and its optimum dose has been determined in a short duration study and patented. In addition, the long-term Quizartinib supplier effect

of 3-HMX in type 2 diabetic rats on antihyperglycemic, antioxidants, antihyperlipidemic, and protein metabolism and kidney marker enzymes was investigated, and its effect was shown previously. In this study, we investigated the effect of 3-HMX on plasma and tissue glycoproteins in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Animals were divided into five groups viz., control group, 3-HMX (40 mg/kg of body weight) treated group, diabetic group, diabetic + 3-HMX (40 mg/kg of body weight), and diabetic + glibenclamide (600 mu g/kg of body weight). 3-HMX was administered orally at a dose of 40 mg/kg of PARP inhibitor body weight for 45 days. The study shows significant increases in the level of sialic acid except kidney and elevated levels of hexose, hexosamine, and fucose in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats, and the treatment with 3-HMX and glibenclamide showed reversal of these

parameters toward normalcy. Thus, the study indicates that 3-HMX possesses a significant beneficial effect on glycoprotein components.”
“Cadherins are cell adhesion molecules with multiple morphogenic functions in brain development, for example, in neuroblast migration and aggregation, axon navigation, neural circuit formation, and synaptogenesis. More than 100 members of the cadherin superfamily are expressed in the developing and mature brain. Most of the cadherins investigated, in particular classic cadherins and delta-protocadherins, are expressed in the cerebellum. For several cadherin subtypes, expression begins at early embryonic stages

and persists until mature stages of cerebellar development. At intermediate stages, distinct Purkinje cell clusters exhibit unique rostrocaudal and mediolateral expression profiles for each cadherin. In the chicken, mouse, and other species, the Purkinje cell clusters are separated by intervening raphes of migrating AC220 order granule cells. This pattern of Purkinje cell clusters/raphes is, at least in part, continuous with the parasagittal striping pattern that is apparent in the mature cerebellar cortex, for example, for zebrin II/aldolase C. Moreover, subregions of the deep cerebellar nuclei, vestibular nuclei and the olivary complex also express cadherins differentially. Neuroanatomical evidence suggests that the nuclear subregions and cortical domains that express the same cadherin subtype are connected to each other, to form neural subcircuits of the cerebellar system. Cadherins thus provide a molecular code that specifies not only embryonic structures but also functional cerebellar compartmentalization.

(c) 2011 American Institute of Physics [doi:10 1063/1 3530631]“<

(c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3530631]“

To retrospectively evaluate the clinical outcome of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who exceeded the Milan criteria, who underwent transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) before check details orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), to determine the value of computed tomography (CT)-based tumor response to TACE as a preoperative selection criterion for OLT.

Materials and Methods:

The study included 33 patients with HCC who exceeded the Milan

criteria and underwent OLT after TACE. Informed written consent was obtained before TACE and OLT. Institutional review board approval was not required. Tumor response to TACE was evaluated at 1 month with CT according to amended Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) guidelines. In the explanted liver, degree of tumor necrosis (>= 90%, 50%-89%, or, 50%), residual tumor stage and grade, and presence of microvascular invasion were assessed. Follow-up after OLT ranged from 1 to 143 months.


After TACE, CT showed

complete tumor response (CR) in 18 (55%) patients. On the explanted liver, tumor necrosis was rated 90% or greater in 20 (61%) patients, with a good correlation with CT. Microvascular invasion was observed in nine (27%) of 33 patients; none of them were reported to have a CR at CT. The 5-year cumulative survival rate after OLT was 72.5%; it was https://www.selleckchem.com/products/a-1210477.html significantly (P=.003) higher in patients with a CR (94.4%) compared with patients with a partial response (PR) (45.4%) and stable disease (50%). The 5-year cumulative recurrence-free BI 6727 cost rate after OLT was 74.4%; it was not affected by the tumor nodule size and number, whereas it was significantly (P=.008) higher in patients with a CR (94.4%) compared with patients with a PR (46.7%) and stable disease (50%).



patients with HCC who exceeded the Milan criteria, a CR after TACE, on the basis of amended RECIST guidelines, is associated with excellent posttransplantation outcomes. Therefore, 1-month response to TACE assessed at CT may represent a valid selection criterion for OLT. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“A series of shape-memory polyurethanes based on poly(E-caprolactone) diol were prepared with novel hydroxyl-terminated hyperbranched polyurethanes as crosslinkers and were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, H-1-NMR, gel permeation chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile testing, and shape-memory testing. The molecular weight of the soluble polymers ranged from 5.1 x 10(4) to 29.0 x 10(4) g/mol.

“Surprisingly, there are no data regarding transfusion fre

“Surprisingly, there are no data regarding transfusion frequency, factors associated with transfusion administration in patients on the kidney transplant waiting list, or transfusion impact on graft and recipient outcomes. We used United States Renal Data System data to identify 43 025 patients added to the waiting list in 1999-2004

and followed through 2006 to assess the relative risk of post-listing transfusions. In 69 991 patients who underwent transplants during the same time period, we assessed the association between pre-transplant Emricasan nmr transfusions and level of panel-reactive antibody (PRA) at the time of transplant, and associations between PRA and patient outcomes. The three-yr cumulative incidence of transfusions was 26% for patients added to the waiting list in 1999, rising to 30% in 2004. Post-listing transfusions were associated with a 28% decreased likelihood of undergoing transplant, and

a more than fourfold increased risk of death. There was a graded association between percent PRA at the time of transplant and adjusted risk of death-censored graft failure, death with function, and GDC-0941 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor the combined event of graft failure and death. These data demonstrate that transfusions remain common and confirm the adverse association between transfusions and PRA, and high PRA and inferior graft and patient outcomes.”
“The mechanical stress-induced domain buy GSK2879552 switching

and energy dissipation in morphotropic phase boundary (1 – x)(Bi(1-y)La(y))FeO(3)-xPbTiO(3) during uniaxial compressive loading have been investigated at three different temperatures. The strain obtained was found to decrease with increasing lanthanum content, although a sharp increase in strain was observed for compositions doped with 7.5 and 10 at. % La. Increased domain switching was found in compositions with decreased tetragonality. This is discussed in terms of the competing influences of the amount of domain switching and the spontaneous strain on the macroscopic behavior under external fields. Comparison of the mechanically and electrically dissipated energy showed significant differences, discussed in terms of the different microscopic interactions of electric field and stress. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3555599]“
“We present theoretical and experimental results on the bonding and structural characteristics of AlN:Ag thin film nanocomposites obtained by means of density functional theory (DFT) computations, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. From the theoretical calculations it was determined that the presence of the Ag substitutional of N or Al atoms affects the electronic density of states (EDOS) of the resulting systems.