“Biliary tract cancers are a rare subgroup of malignancies that include gall bladder carcinoma
and cholangiocarcinoma. They generally carry a poor prognosis based on the advanced AZD6738 datasheet nature of disease at presentation and overall treatment refractoriness. Surgical resection remains the optimal treatment for long-term survival, with consideration of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapies. In this review, we summarize the role of adjuvant treatments including radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and concurrent chemoradiation with the existing clinical evidence for each treatment decision. Given the rarity of these tumors, the evidence provided is based largely on retrospective studies, Surveillance, Epidemiological, and End Results (SEER) database inquiries, single- or multi-institutional prospective studies, and a meta-analysis of adjuvant therapy studies. Currently, there is no adjuvant therapy that has been agreed upon as a standard of care. Results from prospective, multi-institutional phase II and III trials are awaited, along with advances in molecular targeted therapies and radiation techniques, which will better define treatment standards and improve outcomes in this group of diseases. (c) 2014 Elsevier
Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The present work aims to study the synergistic effect between xanthan gum (X) with a range of hydrocolloids such as barley beta-glucan (Bg), guar gum (G), and konjac-mannan (K) on the viscosity of heat-treated fruit juice based beverages. Lapatinib chemical structure The protective effect of X on the stability of Bg, Tubastatin A mw G, and K in a fruit juice based beverage during processing and storage (0-16 weeks at 4 degrees C or 20 degrees C) was also evaluated. The results showed that pasteurization stabilized viscosity and turbidity
of beverages enriched in Bg and BgX. However, the viscosity of pasteurized beverages enriched in K and G varied with storage time. In general, addition of X showed a complete protective effect against degradation at 4 degrees C for K (KX) whereas it provides no protection at all for G (GX). Viscosity and turbidity of beverages prepared with Bg and BgX increased significantly while those with G and K decreased slightly over time. Viscosity and turbidity changes are rapid when beverages are stored at 20 degrees C. We clearly evidenced that processing and storage treatments along with proper formulation are crucial to ensure technological stability of dietary fibers and X proved to be efficient to stabilize other fibers. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All sights reserved.”
“A new method for the detection of (2) adrenergic agonists was developed based on the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of (2) adrenergic agonist with potassium ferricyanide-luminol CL.