05 and a p of 1 16, respectively However, in both analyses, stat

05 and a p of 1.16, respectively. However, in both analyses, statistical significance was not reached. The occurrence of re-sprains at 12 month follow-up was not univariately associated with any of the 10 possible prognostic factors. Prognostic factors in non-recovered participants at 3 months follow-up: A total of 75 participants (74%) regarded themselves as not being recovered at 3 months follow-up. Of these 75 participants, 63 (84%) underwent the physical examination at 3 months follow-up and were included in the analysis. Seven of the potential prognostic factors were univariately associated with the

outcome recovery at 12 months. The final model ( Table 4) included the variables having re-sprains during 3 months of follow-up (β = -1.64, 95% CI -3.11 to -0.16) and having pain at rest at 3 months of follow-up (β = -0.69, 95% CI -1.08 to -0.29). Re-sprains at the 12 month Rapamycin cost follow-up were not univariately associated with any of the potential prognostic factors at 3 months follow-up. Subjective instability at the 12 month follow-up

was univariately associated with four potential prognostic factors (pain during running, Ankle Function Score, recovery, and instability at 3-months follow-up). After backward selection, the final multivariate model included pain during running KRX-0401 cost (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 0.99 to 2.23) and instability (OR = 6.89, 95% CI 0.30 to 159.17) at 3 months of follow-up. However, these factors did not reach significance. Pain during running at the 12 month follow-up was univariately

associated with four potential prognostic factors (setting, pain during running, Ankle Function Score, and recovery at 3 months follow-up). The Ankle Function Score at 3 months follow-up (β = −0.05, 95% CI −0.09 to −0.01) and setting (β = 1.11, 95% CI −0.53 to 2.76) were included in the final multivariate model. However, only the Ankle Function Score was significantly associated with pain during running at the 12 month follow-up (β = −0.05, 95% CI −0.09 to −0.01). The participants who did not attend the physical examination were on average younger (36.5 vs 34.8 years), had a higher BMI (25.5 vs 26.5), and were more often treated with physical therapy (40% else vs 70%) than those who attended. There was no univariate association between any of the five possible prognostic factors from the 3 month follow-up and subjective recovery at the 12 month follow-up. Pain during running and the occurrence of re-sprains were both univariately, but not significantly, associated with the pressure threshold of the ventral malleoli lateralis. Finally, reported instability at the 12 month follow-up was univariately associated with the pressure thresholds of the ventral, distal, and dorsal malleoli lateralis. The final multivariate model included the pressure thresholds of the ventral (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 0.99 to 4.15) and dorsal malleoli lateralis (OR = 4.26, 95% CI 1.14 to 15.96); only the association with the dorsal malleoli lateralis was significant (p = 0.035).

It is particularly useful in patient groups where there is limite

It is particularly useful in patient groups where there is limited time available for assessment, such as the very ill or elderly or when repeated measures are taken on a frequent basis (Broadbent et al 2006). Cross-cultural adaptation of this questionnaire has been completed in Dutch and Spanish (Raaij et al 2012, Pacheco-Heurgo et al 2012). Although the original English version of Brief IPQ has been shown to have good reliability and validity, the content validity (such as misinterpretation of some items) of the Dutch version of the questionnaire has been questioned when participants reported difficulties (van Oort et www.selleckchem.com/products/MK-2206.html al 2011). The validity

of adaptations of the questionnaire

in other languages must be tested before using the adapted questionnaire. CHIR-99021 supplier
“Latest update: 2012. Next update: Not indicated. Patient group: Adults with symptomatic hand, hip, or knee osteoarthritis (OA). Intended audience: Health care providers involved in the management of patients with OA. Additional versions: Supplementary material, including details of the publications and evidence for the reviewed interventions, is available to be downloaded: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acr.21596/suppinfo. Expert working group: A technical expert panel of 13 experts from the USA and Canada was convened. It included academic and practising rheumatologists, primary care physicians, physiatrists, geriatricians, orthopaedic surgeons, and occupational and physical therapists. Funded by: The American College of Rheumatology. Consultation with: The American College of Rheumatology board of directors. Approved by: The American College of Rheumatology. Location: The guidelines are published as: Hochberg MC et al (2012). American College of Rheumatology 2012 recommendations for the CYTH4 use of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies in osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee. Arthritis Care & Research 64: 465–474. They are also available at: http://www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/guidelines/PDFs/ACR_OA_Guidelines_FINAL.pdf.

Description: These guidelines present evidence for the management of patients with symptomatic hand, hip, or knee OA using pharmacologic or nonpharmacologic therapies. The expert panel considered both direct evidence from the research literature in addition to over 10 other clinical practice guidelines, white papers, or scientific statements in the construction of the guidelines. The guidelines use three base cases, one each for hand, hip, and knee OA, to outline and discuss the evidence available for the management of these conditions. Recommendations are summarised in six tables, with a separate table for pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies for the three conditions.

To control for potential seasonal differences in physical

To control for potential seasonal differences in physical HIF inhibitor activity, the hours of daylight available on the first day of data collection were calculated for each participant and treated as a potential confounder

in all analyses. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables, histograms plotted and skewness and kurtosis checked. Given that children’s physical activity behaviours may be gender-specific (Jago et al., 2005), all analyses were run separately for boys and girls. Analysis of variance tests (ANOVAs) and follow-up Scheffé tests were used to examine differences in physical activity levels across the four categories of frequency of active play. Linear regression models were Gemcitabine cost used to estimate the extent to which active play predicted leisure-time and total daily physical activity. All models were adjusted for child BMI SDS, household IMD score, parent education and hours of daylight. Robust standard errors were used to account for the clustering of participants within schools. Analyses were performed in STATA version 10.0 (College Station, Texas) with alpha set at 0.05. Descriptive statistics are presented for all participants and by gender in Table 1. Independent sample t-tests indicated that boys engaged in more physical activity than girls after school, at the weekend

and across the whole week for MVPA (p = < 0.01) and CPM (p = < 0.01). ANOVA results are presented in Table 2. Girls who engaged in frequent active play (5 or more days per week) had higher mean activity levels (CPM) and minutes of MVPA on weekdays and across the whole week than girls who engaged in active

play less frequently (never or 1–2 days per week). There were no differences in physical activity (CPM, MVPA) between active play categories at weekends. In contrast, boys who engaged in frequent active play had higher mean activity levels (CPM) on weekdays and weekend days, as well as across the week, compared to boys who engaged in active play less frequently. Linear regression analyses indicated that frequent active play was associated with mean activity levels (CPM) on weekdays after school (girls: p = 0.02; boys: p = < 0.01), but was only significant on oxyclozanide weekend days for boys (p = < 0.01). Frequent active play was also associated with children’s MVPA on weekdays after school (girls: p = < 0.01; boys: p = 0.03) but not on weekend days for either sex. Finally, frequent active play was associated with mean activity levels (CPM) across the whole week (girls: p = < 0.01; boys: p = < 0.01), but was only associated with MVPA across the whole week in girls (p = < 0.01) ( Table 3). The frequency of active play was associated with both leisure-time and total daily physical activity in 10- to 11-year-old children, but associations varied by gender and physical activity outcome variable.

The key interventions are: training functions and skills, taping

The key interventions are: training functions and skills, taping or bracing if necessary, and Luminespib cost giving information and advice. No recommendation is made about the number of sessions. Information on guideline adherence in patients with functional instability is lacking, but recently two studies have been published in which compliance with the guideline for acute ankle injuries has been assessed. The first showed that about three-quarters

of the physiotherapists surveyed believed they treated at least half of their patients according to the guideline (Leemrijse et al 2006). Socially desirable answers might have been given since it concerned self-reported behaviour. In the second study, quality

indicators were developed to measure the extent to which physiotherapists followed the guideline. Four of the quality indicators were process indicators that reflect the most important recommendations from the guideline: use of function score at the beginning and end, measurement of phase of recovery at intake, measurement of normal or abnormal recovery at intake, and interventions used according to the guideline. The other three quality indicators were outcome indicators: accomplished treatment goals, number of sessions, and function score at the end of treatment (van der Wees selleck kinase inhibitor et al 2007). In 57% of the patients, treatment met all the guideline criteria. However, participating physiotherapists were very familiar with the contents of the guideline and were specifically instructed on the study and its use. As stated in basic conditions for implementation of guidelines of the Royal Dutch Society of Physical Therapy, it is a problem that most guidelines are tested in a selected group of physiotherapists instead of in a random Levetiracetam group (Fleuren et al 2008). Moreover, more than half were to some extent specialised in sports physiotherapy. Therefore, it is likely that the adherence to quality indicators in this population overestimates

adherence in the general population. In the present study, data are collected using a registration network of general physiotherapists. This way, adherence to the ankle injury guideline can be measured in a representative group of physiotherapists who are unaware of the specific research goal for which they deliver the information about their management of patients. The purpose of the study was to gain insight into treatment strategies and to investigate to what extent a representative group of physiotherapists act according to the guideline and which factors explain adherence. Although elementary, this information is very scarce, especially in patients with functional instability. Therefore, the specific research questions were: 1.

Eight physiotherapists and four physiotherapy assistants particip

Eight physiotherapists and four physiotherapy assistants participated in the study. The physiotherapists ranged in experience from one

to 14 years post-graduation and the physiotherapy assistants had between two and 10 years of experience. Physiotherapists were managing caseloads of a mean of 8 patients (SD 2). The participants had a mean (SD) age of 68 (13) years, 9 (64%) were male, 7 (50%) had a right-sided stroke lesion, 6 (43%) had a left-sided lesion and 1 (7%) had a bilateral stroke. The average duration of physiotherapy sessions was 55.6 (23.4) minutes (range 19 to 90) (Table see more 1). There was strong agreement between therapist-estimated and video-recorded total therapy times (ICC = 0.90, see Table 1), however there was a systematic overestimation of total

therapy time by the therapists, mean difference 7.7 (SD 10.5) minutes (95% CI Ibrutinib chemical structure 4.6 to 10.8). The Bland-Altman plot (Figure 1) for total therapy time presents this systematic overestimation. Similarly, there was strong agreement between therapistestimated and video-recorded time for total active time in therapy sessions (ICC = 0.83, see Table 1) with a systematic overestimation of total active time by the therapists, mean difference 14.1 (SD 10.3) minutes, 95% CI 11.1 to 17.1 ( Figure 2). However, there was less agreement between therapist-estimated and video-recorded inactive time (ICC = 0.62, see Table 1), and therapists systematically underestimated the amount of time patients were inactive during therapy sessions, mean difference –6.9 Oxalosuccinic acid (SD 9.5) minutes, 95% CI –9.7 to –4.1 ( Figure 3). Comparing the influence of session type (individual versus group) using percentage mean difference,

there was no difference in the accuracy of estimations of total active time between individual (28%) and circuit class therapy (28%) sessions, but therapists tended to underestimate inactive time in circuit class therapy sessions (37%) to a greater extent than in individual therapy sessions (29%) (Table 2). In terms of the various subcategories of activity, ICC scores ranged from 0.73 to 0.99 for all of the categories except for ‘transfers and sit-to-stand practice’, which had a low ICC score of 0.37, indicating only a fair agreement between therapists’ estimations and video recordings (Table 3). As with the total active time, therapists tended to overestimate the time patients spent engaged in the various physical activity categories. The magnitude of this overestimation varied, but in some cases was as high as 63%. This is the largest study to date to investigate the accuracy of therapists in recording therapy time, and the only such study to involve multiple data collection centres and to include group therapy as well as individual therapy sessions.

1 mM−1 cm−1) The reaction buffer contained 10 mM potassium phosp

1 mM−1 cm−1). The reaction buffer contained 10 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 0.6 mM n-dodecyl-d-maltoside, 2–4 l g−1 homogenate protein and the reaction was initiated with addition of 0.7 l g−1 reduced cytochrome c. The activity of complex IV was measured at 25 °C for 10 min. The activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes

were described as nmol min−1 mg protein−1. The homogenates (n = 5 each) were centrifuged at 800g for 10 min. and the supernatants kept at −70 °C until used for creatine kinase activity determination. The maximal period between homogenate preparation and enzyme analysis was always less than 5 days. Protein content was determined by the method described by Lowry et al. (1951) using bovine serum albumin as standard. Creatine kinase activity was measured Linsitinib clinical trial in brain homogenates pre-treated with 0.625 mM lauryl maltoside. The reaction mixture consisted of 60 mM Tris–HCl, pH 7.5, containing 7 mM phosphocreatine, 9 mM MgSO4 and approximately 0.4–1.2 μg protein in a final volume of 100 μL. After 15 min of preincubation at 37 °C, the reaction was started by the addition of 0.3 μmol of ADP plus 0.08 μmol of reduced glutathione. The reaction was

stopped after 10 min by the addition of 1 μmol of hydroxymercuribenzoic acid. The creatine formed was estimated according to the colorimetric method of Hughes (1962). The color was developed by the addition of 100 μL 2% α-naphthol and 100 μL 0.05% diacetyl in a final volume of 1 mL and read spectrophotometrically after 20 min at 540 nm. Results were described as nmol min−1 mg protein−1. Entinostat cell line The prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala (n = 5

each) were homogenized (1:10, w/v) in SETH buffer (0.25 M sucrose, 1 mM EDTA, 10 mM Tris–HCl, pH 7.4). The homogenates were centrifuged at 800×g for 10 min and the supernatants were kept at −70 °C until it will be used for enzyme activity determination. Protein content was determined by the method described by Lowry et al. (1951) using bovine serum albumin as standard. Citrate synthase activity Oxalosuccinic acid was assayed according to the method described by Shepherd and Garland (1969). The reaction mixture contained 100 mM Tris, pH 8.0, 100 mM acetyl CoA, 100 mM 5,5-di-thiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid), 0.1% triton X-100, and 2–4 g supernatant protein and was initiated with 100 Moxaloacetate and monitored at 412 nm for 3 min at 25 °C (the final volume of reaction mixture was 0.3 mL). The Prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala tissues (n = 5 each) were excised. The tissues were homogenized immediately in extraction buffer (mM) (1% Triton-X 100, 100 Tris, pH 7.4, containing 100 sodium pyrophosphate, 100 sodium fluoride, 10 EDTA, 10 sodium vanadate, 2 PMSF and 0.1 mg of aprotinin/ml) at 4 °C with a Polytron PTA 20S generator (Brinkmann Instruments model PT 10/35) operated at maximum speed for 30 s. The extracts were centrifuged at 11,000 rpm and 4 °C in a Beckman 70.

, 2006) The combinatorial

output of the signal to the hy

, 2006). The combinatorial

output of the signal to the hypothalamic CRH cells emerging from activation of PVT, ACe, and BnST of recurrently handled pups differed from that of single-handled pups, and resulted in robust and enduring suppression of CRH gene expression in these neurons (Fig. 2) (Fenoglio et al., 2006 and Karsten and Baram, 2013). This reduction in CRH expression in hypothalamic PVN, together with the apparent network changes involving this neuronal population, led us to focus on the CRH-expressing cells in the PVN as important mediators of molecular changes associated with resilience. Neurons receive information mainly by synaptic contact, so that altered excitatory and/or inhibitory synaptic input onto CRH neurons as a result of maternal care might be a plausible mechanism for the alteration of molecular machinery Vismodegib concentration in these neurons that enduringly reduces CRH expression. Synaptic innervation of neurons is now known to be dynamic and modulated by experience (Brunson et al., 2001, Verkuyl et al., 2004 and Horvath, 2005). For CRH neurons, the majority of input is mediated by GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses (Aubry et al., 1996, Boudaba

et al., 1997, Cullinan, 2000, Miklos and Kovacs, Autophagy Compound Library clinical trial 2002 and Ziegler et al., 2012), via GABAA (Cullinan, 2000) and glutamate receptors (Aubry et al., 1996, Kiss et al., 1996, Cullinan, 2000, Di et al., 2003, Ulrich-Lai et al., 2011 and Ziegler et al., 2012). Combining electrophysiology, quantitative analyses of vesicular transporters and quantitative confocal and electron microscopy, Korosi et al., studied if enhanced early-life experience reduced excitation to CRH neurons or augmented their inhibition (Korosi et al., 2010). Using similar methodologies, Gunn et al., examined the excitatory and inhibitory Olopatadine input onto CRH-expressing hypothalamic neurons of mice experiencing aberrant, fragmented maternal care in cages with limited bedding and

nesting material (Gunn et al., 2013). Using several different methods, Korosi et al., discovered reduced number and function of excitatory synapse that abut onto CRH-expressing neurons in pups experiencing a week of recurrent augmented maternal care (Korosi et al., 2010). While enhanced maternal care resulted in reduced levels of the glutamatergic transporter vGlut2 via Western blot, no change in the levels of the GABA-A transporter vGAT was detected. Dual-label confocal microscopy revealed a reduced number of vGlut2-positive puncta (presynaptic terminals) abutting identified CRH neurons (Fig. 3). Quantitative electron microscopy revealed reduced number of asymmetric (excitatory) synapses onto CRH neurons in pups experiencing augmented maternal care.

The techniques were chosen for each participant

The techniques were chosen for each participant buy PCI-32765 according to perceived efficacy and participant preference, and aligned with the recommended application of the selected techniques ( McIlwaine and Van Ginderdeuren 2009). Subjects performed this airway clearance regimen for each session with or without an assistant as required. The duration and type of airway clearance techniques

were established in the days prior to randomisation and were maintained across the three study days. Timing regimens: When participants were allocated to inhale hypertonic saline before or after airway clearance techniques, they were advised to commence the second intervention as soon as the first intervention was complete. When participants were allocated to inhale hypertonic saline during airway clearance techniques, participants and the treating therapist decided collaboratively if this would be performed by simultaneous administration or by alternating short periods of inhalation and techniques, eg, 10–15 breaths of hypertonic saline followed by airway clearance techniques, performed in cycles until the treatment session was completed. However, participants using mouthpiece positive expiratory pressure as their airway clearance technique were not permitted

to administer hypertonic saline simultaneously as this alters the inhaled dose and the click here distribution of its deposition ( Laube et al 2005). Alternating administration of these two interventions was always used instead. Participants received other usual care on all three study days, including all other routine therapies. Other inhaled therapies (eg, dornase alpha, corticosteroids) were administered at a consistent time of day that was more than one hour from any of the three study periods. Typically, dornase alpha was inhaled in the morning or evening, according to patient preference (Bishop et al 2011, Dentice and Elkins 2011). Lung function was measured using a standard

spirometere according to American Thoracic Society guidelines (American Thoracic Society 1995). The spirometric measures recorded were FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC), with each calculated in litres and as a percentage of the predicted value (Knudson et al 1983). The spirometric measures were recorded prior to the second treatment session each day. Participants then had a bronchodilator, and during then inhaled hypertonic saline either before, during, or after airway clearance techniques, as allocated for that day. The spirometric measures were recorded again 2 hr after the baseline measurement, and the change in FEV1 and FVC over this 2-hr period for each of the study days was calculated. The physiotherapist who recorded the spirometric measures was kept unaware of the timing regimens allocated to all participants. The perceived effectiveness, tolerability, and satisfaction with each timing regimen were reported by participants at the end of the day after all treatments using that regimen had been experienced.

5 and 6

Aceclofenac, an NSAID, has been recommended orall

5 and 6

Aceclofenac, an NSAID, has been recommended orally for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. It also has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activity. The oral administration of aceclofenac causes gastrointestinal ulcers and gastrointestinal bleeding in chronic use. Due to gastrointestinal bleeding it may cause anemia. Transdermal delivery of aceclofenac may avoid these side effects, may help in the better patient compliance and bypasses first pass metabolism.7, 8 and 9 Therefore, an improved aceclofenac formulation is desirable which gives high degree of permeation and is devoid of chemical penetration enhancers.10 In the study Everolimus purchase Compritol 888 ATO, PEG-8 Miglyol

812 were selected as a solid and liquid lipids respectively. A nonionic surfactant Polysorbate 80 was used as stabilizer. The aceclofenac loaded NLC were optimized by using Box–Behnken Design. The selected formulations were evaluated for the Ex vivo animal skin study and pharmacodynamic study. Aceclofenac was provided by Ranbaxy ZD1839 solubility dmso Laboratories, Gurgaon, Compritol 888 ATO by Gattefosse India Pvt. Ltd., PEG-8 Miglyol 812 by Subhash Chemicals, Polysorbate 80, ethyl acetate and other required chemicals are procured from Loba Chemie. The water used for all experiments was double distilled water. The NLC was prepared by a modified method of melt ultrasonication and high speed homogenization. Aceclofenac was dispersed in the about 10 g of mixed lipid phase (consisted of Compritol 888 ATO and PEG-8 Miglyol®812) maintained at around 10 °C above the melting temperature of mixed lipid. 2–5–10% (w/w) hot aqueous phase (Polysorbate 80) was heated to the same temperature then added drop by drop into the molten lipid phase under high speed homogenizer (ultra turrax) with 10000 rpm for 5 min. A hot pre-emulsion thus obtained was ultrasonicated using an ultrasonic

probe (PCI Instruments India) and again homogenized. The obtained dispersion cooled at room temperature was filtered through a millipore Astemizole filter (0.45 μm). Aceclofenac loaded NLC gel was prepared by using Carbopol solution as a gelling vehicle for the NLC dispersion of aceclofenac. The gel consistency was obtained by adjusting the pH of the formulation. A three-factor, three-level Box–Behnken experimental design was used to optimize the procedure.11 and 12 (Table 1). The prepared NLCs were evaluated for the depression in melting point as compared with the pure lipid. The characterization was performed by using SEM and Master sizer (Malvern UK) for surface properties and size of the particles in the NLC dispersion. The lipid compatibility with the drug was studied by using FT IR and DSC graphs. The NLCs were evaluated for the rheological behavior by using Brookfield Viscometer (RVDV Pro II).

15 and 16 The phytochemicals

15 and 16 The phytochemicals Selleck MK0683 induce toxicity in tumor cells either by scavenging constitutive reactive oxygen species or by generating paradoxically additional amount of free radicals resulting in the imbalance of cellular oxidative status, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and eventually cell death.17, 18 and 19 In a recent study,20 the bark extract of S. oleosa was examined for its cytotoxic potential against different cell lines such as 502713 (colon), SW-520 (colon), HCT-13 (colon), A-549 (lungs), HEP-2 (liver), SK-NS-H (central nervous system), and IMR-32 (neuroblastoma). SRB dye assay following the method of Skehan et al 21 is used to evaluate the cytotoxic potential. The

ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extract showed a significant cytotoxicity against all FK228 cell lines, except the IMR-32 cell line whereas hexane and chloroform extract did not show any significant inhibition against any of the cell lines. The cytotoxic potential was correlated with their hydroxyl radical scavenging potential. Hexane and chloroform extracts were found to have least hydroxyl radical scavenging ability, hence least cytotoxicity against the different cell lines. Oxygen is used for generating

metabolic energy in our body but it also produces reactive oxygen species as by product during its various reactions in the body. Reactive oxygen species are usually atoms or a group of atoms having odd (unpaired) electrons, in aerobic cells these are produced during mitochondrial electron transport and several MRIP oxidation reactions.22

These reactive species can, react with DNA and several other biomolecules causing what is called ‘oxidative damage to DNA’ This damage causes changes in DNA such as strand breaks; changes at cross links between DNA and protein; changes at base free sites among other changes.23 Several medicinal plants, fruits, vegetables can decrease the risk of oxidative damage as they comprise of vitamins, carotenes, phenolic compounds, flavanoids, alkanoids, tannins etc. which act as chemopreventive agents.24, 25 and 26 These phytochemicals can prevent damage by their radical scavenging ability. Thind et al evaluated the hydroxyl radical scavenging potential of S. oleosa. Extracts of roots of S. oleosa with different solvents were tested for their antiproliferative activity. Methanol extract was effective against a colon cell line (SW-620), ethyl acetate against SK-NS-H (CNS cell line) and water extract against 502713 and SW-620 (colon) cell lines. Hydroxyl radical which was used to determine radical scavenging potential of extracts, was generated by Fenton’s reaction, in site-specific and non-site-specific deoxyribose degradation assays. The extracts showed radical scavenging potential following the order of inhibition at 100 μg/mL as ethyl acetate extract (67.72%) > water extract (65.68%) > methanol extract (64.32%) in site-specific assay and as methanol extract (83.38%) > ethyl acetate extract (81.