Failure to “blind” a study effectively Proteases inhibitor becomes particularly relevant and, possibly, very difficult, if the side effects of the treatment under study are marked and if the primary measure of outcome is “soft,” such as patients with PBC who want very much to have their fatigue or pruritus reduced. Only with close examination of the “strange” results of our crossover trial-design to evaluate the effect of ondansetron on fatigue in PBC did we “figure out” that the results were invalidated both by patient anticipation
of benefit and the near-universal side effects of odansetron! In a more recently published trial in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), one outcome marker was the combined biochemical response and the change in sense of “well-being,” the latter of which may have been compromised by different dosing regimens for the two arms of the study.10 Patients with PBC tend to be more “informed” than most. My failure to take this into account taught Opaganib datasheet me that before designing, writing, submitting, and securing funding, one should, first of all, solicit the patient’s interest! My RCT of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for osteoporosis failed because
the patients were either dead set against, or were already taking, HRT and few sat “on the fence.” In a more recent study of the effect of antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) on central nervous system integrity,11 I learned that if measures of outcome take time to conduct or collect, it is particularly hard to encourage untreated controls to return for repeat evaluation 1 year later. These examples highlight MCE公司 that small omissions in planning can ruin even the best-intentioned RCT. Sadly, we are familiar with some of the past mistakes in judgement
when subjects were not fully informed and/or may have been coerced to participate in clinical trials.12 The process of informed consent needs to be written in a clear style and appropriate language for the average adult. But, “informed consent” in 2011 seems to me to “go overboard.” Patients must read consent forms running to so many pages, it is hard to imagine that any patient reads them in their entirety. The process could indeed be perceived as coercion, particularly if participation may be that individual’s only way to gain access to treatment. Meanwhile, the need to mention every “potential” side effect may deter others from entering the trial, thereby missing the benefits from the “experimental” therapy. Blame for this should not be laid just at the feet of “industry.” These aspects of informed consent are the downside of what is basically very important: equipoise in the recruitment and conduct of clinical trials.13 This argument can be taken further if we take language, culture, and circumstance into account. We need a reevaluation of the consent process to ensure that patients not only have “access” to information, but that they are able to “consume and digest” that information.