During polishing, the grits of abrasive paper squeeze the surface of the Cu foil and rub it into the rough surface which will leave a compressive residual stress on the surface of the https://www.selleckchem.com/mTOR.html polished Cu foil specimen . It can be found that Figure 7 has a similar shape with Figure 2, which indicates that the initial compressive stress on the specimen surface has a relationship with the density of FGLNAs grown on the specimen. It is considered that
initial compressive stress has an action to obstruct the volume expansion of the oxide layer which formed on the specimen surface during the heating process. Therefore, a higher effective VGS would occur for the same oxide volume expansion, which induces more and faster diffusion of Cu atoms to the specimen’s surface, thereby increasing the density of grown FGLNAs. On the other hand, the heating time for the first appearance of FGLNAs was also observed for the specimens of unpolished Cu foil, polished Cu foil (400 grit), and Cu film. As shown in Figure 8, the heating time for the specimens of unpolished Cu foil, polished Cu foil (400 grit), and Cu film is 3, 2, and
1.5 h, respectively. Compared with the results shown in Figure 7, higher initial compressive selleck chemicals stress in the specimen leads to shorter heating time for the first appearance of FGLNAs. It indicates that higher check details vertical gradient stress promotes the diffusion of Cu atoms, thereby speeding up the growth of FGLNAs. Therefore, the same
heating time results in the highest density of FGLNAs grown on the Cu film specimen. Moreover, the thickness of the Ni catalyst can also affect the growth time of Cu2O FGLNAs but does not affect the morphology and size. Thinner thickness of the Ni film would lead to a longer time for the growth of FGLNAs. Figure 6 Ex situ θ /2 θ diffractograms measured for X-ray stress analysis. (a) Unpolished Cu foil, (b) polished Cu foil (400 grit), and (c) Cu film specimens before heating. The legend reports the corresponding ψ angles (i.e., inclination of the specimen). Figure 7 X-ray stress of unpolished Cu foil, polished Cu foil (400 grit), and Cu film specimens before heating. Figure 8 Heating time for the first appearance of FGLNAs. The FGLNAs were grown on the specimens of unpolished, polished Cu OSBPL9 foils (400 grit), and Cu film. Figure 9 shows the XRD spectra of polished Cu foil (400 grit) and Cu film specimens before heating, and the peak width at half height was calculated using the JADE software (version 6.5). Mean grain size determined from the width of the diffraction peaks using Scherrer’s formula is 42 nm for the specimen of polished Cu foil and 59 nm for the Cu film specimen. It is considered that larger grain size may induce larger initial compressive stress in the specimen, thereby creating larger vertical gradient stress to promote the growth of FGLNAs. It should be noted that polishing would not change the crystal size of the Cu foil specimen.