Approximately 86% and 100% of E. coli and 100% of K. pneumoniae were sensitive to eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, respectively. Eugenol exhibited MIC of 499 mu g/mL and 63-999 mu g/mL among maximum numbers of E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Cinnamaldehyde demonstrated MIC of 122 mu g/mL and 245 mu g/mL among maximum numbers of E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, respectively. Lowest binding energies after docking of bioactive see more compounds with ESBL proteins predicted effective interactions among them. These compounds hydrogen bonded with catalytic and other crucial amino acid residues of ESBL proteins. Conclusions: Microbiological assays and molecular docking experiments indicated
antibacterial activity and significant molecular interactions of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde with ESBL enzymes of pathogenic bacteria. (C) 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Context. Although sub-Saharan Africa suffers the greatest burden of progressive illness, there selleck inhibitor are few outcome measures with adequate properties to measure needs and outcomes. Objectives. To examine the psychometric properties of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative Care (FACIT-Pal) among people receiving palliative care in three African countries. Methods. Adult patients in South Africa,
Kenya, and Uganda gave self-reported data to the core FACIT-G plus Pal subscale. Data were subjected to factor analysis, corrected item-total correlations, and Cronbach’s alpha for full scale and subscales. Results. The resulting four factors bear a strong similarity to the original Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General in our sample of 461: physical symptoms, functional well-being, friends
and family, and emotional well-being. Cronbach’s alpha for the full 27-item scale was 0.90 and for the physical well-being, social/family well-being, emotional well-being, and functional well-being subscales, it was 0.83, 0.78, 0.80, and 0.87, respectively. Varimax rotation of the 19-item FACITPal scale showed three clear interpretable factors. buy PXD101 Factor 1, a sense of purpose and meaning in life; Factor 2, physical symptoms; and Factor 3, social integration. For the 19-item FACIT-Pal, Cronbach’s a was 0.81, and individual corrected item-total correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.61. Cronbach’s a for the eight items comprising Factor 1 (meaning in life) was 0.83. For the other two factors, it was 0.70 (physical symptoms, six items) and 0.68 (social integration, three items). Conclusion. The FACIT-Pal is a reliable multidimensional scale for people with life-limiting incurable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, and the observed factors are interpretable and clinically meaningful.(C) 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ultrastructurally, the neoplasm showed neuroectodermal features, including filamentous cytoplasm and abundant intercellular bridges. The patient had no lesions in the central nervous system or the para-spinal region, suggesting that this tumor arose spontaneously within the abdominal cavity. (C) 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Aging leads to changes in cardiac structure and function. Evidence suggests that the practice of regular exercise may prevent disturbances in the cardiovascular system during aging. We studied the effects of aging on the morphology and morphometry
of cardiac neurons in Wistar rats and investigated whether a lifelong moderate exercise program could exert a protective effect toward some MGCD0103 datasheet deleterious effects of aging. Aging caused a significant decline (28%) in the number of NADH-diaphorase-stained cardiac
Animals submitted to a daily session of 60 min, 5 day/week, at 1.1 km/h of running in treadmill over the entire life span exhibited a reversion of the observed decline in the number of cardiac neurons. However, most interesting was that the introduction of this lifelong exercise protocol dramatically altered the sizes of cardiac neurons. There was a notable increase in the percentage of small neurons in the rats of the exercise group compared to the sedentary animals. This is the first time that a protective effect of lifelong regular aerobic exercise has been demonstrated on the deleterious effects of Danusertib concentration aging in cardiac neurons. (C) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Modern genetic analysis requires the development of new resources to systematically explore gene function
in vivo. Overexpression screens are a powerful method to investigate genetic pathways, but the goal of routine and comprehensive overexpression screens has been hampered by the lack of systematic libraries. Here we describe the construction of a systematic collection of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome in a high-copy vector and its validation www.selleckchem.com/products/BMS-777607.html in two overexpression screens.”
“Objectives. Cancer incidence in schizophrenia is not increased commensurate with higher rates of risk exposures. Here we report an investigation of the DNA damage response, an anti-tumorigenic defence, in immortalised lymphoblasts from patients with schizophrenia. Methods. Unirradiated and irradiated (5Gy) lymphoblasts from schizophrenia patients (n = 28) and healthy controls (n = 28) were immunostained for the phosphorylated histone variant H2AX (gamma H2AX), an index of DNA double-strand breaks. Flow cytometry was used to assess cell cycle distribution and gamma H2AX immunofluorescence. Rate of DNA repair was quantified by determining the temporal change in gamma H2AX values following irradiation. Results. In unirradiated lymphoblasts, gamma H2AX levels were significantly increased in the schizophrenia group compared with controls (effect size = 0.86). This increase was most evident in patients with cognitive deficits.
Information about age-related differences in adverse events, locomotor effects, drug-disease interactions, dosing instructions, and information about the proportion of included 65+ patients was considered necessary by most respondents. Clinicians considered information significantly more important than the non-clinical respondents about the inclusion of 75+, time-until-benefit in older people, anticholinergic effects, drug-disease interactions, and convenience of use. Main study limitations are the focus on information for daily practice, while the ICH E7 guideline is a legislative document focused on market approval of a new medicine. Also, a questionnaire with
Selleck Bioactive Compound Library a Likert scale has its limitations; this was addressed by
providing space for comments.\n\nConclusions: This study reveals that items considered necessary are currently not included in the ICH E7 guideline. Also, clinicians’ and non-clinicians’ opinions differed significantly in 15% of the items. Therefore, all stakeholders should collaborate to improve the availability of information for the rational prescribing to older individuals.”
“Objectives: Acute and chronic respiratory conditions affect a large segment GSK1120212 purchase of pregnant women. The purpose of the current study was to examine the concomitant effects of respiratory conditions and smoking during pregnancy on gestational age, birth weight, fetal distress, infant mortality, premature rupture of membranes, placenta abruption, and mode of delivery.\n\nMethods: This study used data (n = 1,064,969) from the North Carolina linked birth/infant death files from 1999 to 2007. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and 95%
confidence intervals (CIs) in assessing risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.\n\nResults: We found that women with respiratory conditions/smoking status were significantly more likely than nonsmokers with no respiratory conditions to have a low-birth-weight infant, an infant with find more fetal distress, and experience preterm birth and an infant’s death. Adjusted odds ratios also revealed that smokers with respiratory conditions were 2.37 (95% CI 1.69-3.32) times more likely than women with no respiratory conditions/nonsmoking status to have placenta abruption and 2.20 (95% CI 1.85-2.61) times more likely to have premature rupture of membranes. Regardless of smoking status, women with respiratory conditions were less likely to have a vaginal delivery.\n\nConclusions: These findings underscore the need for clinical and public health programs to educate women, particularly those with respiratory diseases, of the immense array of adverse outcomes that may occur as a consequence of active maternal smoking during gestation. It is important for interventions to target mothers with respiratory conditions early on to ensure favorable birth outcomes.”
“Testate amoebae are a group of shelled protozoa that occur in high density populations in wet environments.
(J Am Coll Cardiol Intv 2009;2:655-62) (C) 2009 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation”
“Trichomonas vaginalis commonly causes vaginitis and perhaps cervicitis in women and urethritis in men and women. Macrophages are important immune cells in response to T. vaginalis infection. In this study, we investigated whether human macrophages could be involved in inflammation induced by T. vaginalis. Human monocyte-derived macrophages
( HMDM) were co-cultured with T. vaginalis. Live, opsonized-live trichomonads, and T. vaginalis lysates increased proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 by HMDM. The involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B signaling pathway in cytokine production induced by T. vaginalis BMS-777607 cost was confirmed by phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 NF-kappa B. In addition, stimulation with live T. vaginalis induced marked augmentation of nitric oxide ( NO) production and expression of inducible NO synthase ( iNOS) levels in HMDM. However, trichomonad-induced
NF-kappa B activation and TNF-alpha production in macrophages were significantly inhibited by inhibition of iNOS levels with L-NMMA ( NO synthase inhibitor). Moreover, pretreatment with NF-kappa B inhibitors ( PDTC or Bay11-7082) caused human macrophages to produce less TNF-alpha. These results suggest that T. vaginalis stimulates human macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, and NCT-501 concentration NO. In particular, we showed that T. vaginalis induced TNF-alpha production in macrophages through NO-dependent activation of NF-kappa B, which might be closely involved in inflammation caused by T. vaginalis.”
“In immune responses, activated
T cells migrate to B-cell follicles and develop into follicular T-helper (T-FH) cells, a recently identified subset of BI6727 CD4(+) T cells specialized in providing help to B lymphocytes in the induction of germinal centres(1,2). Although Bcl6 has been shown to be essential in T-FH-cell function, it may not regulate the initial migration of T cells(3) or the induction of the T-FH program, as exemplified by C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5) upregulation(4). Here we show that expression of achaete-scute homologue 2 (Ascl2)-a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor(5)-is ;selectively upregulated in T-FH cells. Ectopic expression of Ascl2 upregulates CXCR5 but not Bcl6, and downregulates C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) expression in T cells in vitro, as well as accelerating T-cell migration to the follicles and T-FH-cell development in vivo in mice. Genome-wide analysis indicates that Ascl2 directly regulates T-FH-related genes whereas it inhibits expression of T-helper cell 1 (T(H)1) and T(H)17 signature genes.
We describe here experiences of determining markers of apoptosis in human platelets treated in vitro with pro-apoptotic chemical and physical stimuli. These include depolarization of mitochondrial inner membrane, cytochrome c release, expression of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins of Bcl-2 family, activation of apoptosis executioner caspase-3, exposure of phosphatidylserine, platelet shrinkage, fragmentation to microparticles, blebbing and filopod extrusion on the platelet surface. These assays serve to characterize platelet apoptosis in different cellular compartments (mitochondria, cytosol and plasma membrane) and at the whole-cell level. Methods commonly employed in studies of platelet apoptosis markers include Nepicastat flow
cytometry, Western blot analysis and electron microscopy. An integrated methodological approach, based on determination of different platelet apoptosis markers, represents a useful tool for examining platelet apoptosis in various physiological and pathological settings.”
“Background: The large caliber of head hair in hair transplantation imparts a coarse hairline, whereas natural hairlines are typically softer. In hirsute individuals, transplantation of leg hair to the hairline may result in a superior aesthetic appearance.\n\nObservation:
A total of 1025 leg hair follicles in 1 patient were grafted to an area 0.5 to 1.0 cm in front of and 0.5 to 1.0 cm internal to the vanguard hair of the original hairline and temporal recesses; the other patient received approximately 1000 leg hairs and 600 head hairs to advance Combretastatin A4 and soften his hairline and to create a custom widow’s peak. Transplantation resulted in a fully grown and soft-looking hairline after 9 months in the first patient, with growth of 75% to 80% of the transplanted leg hair. The mean length of the transplanted leg hair was longer than the length of the original leg hair, with less curliness but similar hair width. Transplanted leg hair width was significantly finer compared with existing head hair width. After 4 years, results were sustained, minimizing concerns that subsequent
hair loss might result from leg hair cycle variations. In the second patient, phosphatase inhibitor library similar results were observed at 3 years.\n\nConclusion: The use of leg hair in transplantation provides additional options in patients with hairlines that need to be refined.”
“To examine the standard Mn and Cu concentrations in mixed saliva from children and the relationship between these levels and dental caries, resting mixed saliva samples obtained from 527 children of an elementary school in Kitakyushu City were collected at 10:00-11:30 a.m. during December 2004. The Mn and Cu concentrations were determined using simultaneous multi-element atomic absorption spectrometry. The standard Mn and Cu levels were 22.0 +/- 15.2 and 3.8 +/- 4.1 ng/mL, respectively, in the sound teeth group. Mn levels were significantly higher in boys (25.4 +/- 17.4 ng/mL) than girls (19.1 +/- 12.
This investigation examined
patterns of age-related decline in performance for 45 Masters runners who rigorously trained continuously for at least a decade. Longitudinal data for age and performance were collected for 200m, 1500m, and 10km events retrospectively across participants’ careers. Cross-sectional (CS) data representing normal patterns of aging were derived from online archives. Longitudinal data reflected within-participant training effects whereas CS data did not. Second-order regression analyses were performed separately for each data type and quadratic beta coefficients, indicative of accelerated age decline, were compared for CS and longitudinal AP26113 samples on a within-event basis. Results showed evidence of accelerated decline with advancing age for both samples, although rates for longitudinal samples were moderated for the 200m and 1500m events. Findings for the long-distance event were anomalous. Results provide evidence for moderated age-decline in physical performance measures for individuals who sustain engagement in organized sport for lengthy periods. Discussion focuses on methodological considerations for advancing future research that contrasts CS and longitudinal samples, and the importance of encouraging sport involvement opportunities to aging individuals.”
“This study aims to check the antibacterial activity of
various branded soaps against bacteria that are normally present in the environment. The proposed study includes selection of most common bacterial strains from the environment. Identification of bacterial strains was LY2157299 done by standard microbiological techniques, which include gram staining, biochemical testing and
advanced identification CX-6258 by analytical profile index. Determination of minimal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal activity of strains was performed by tube and microtitration method. Antibacterial soaps showed better MIC in comparison with beauty soaps. The most resistant bacterium to all the soaps is Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is obvious that antibacterial soaps have the antibacterial agents that can either kill or inhibit the bacterial cells. It might be possible that some bacterial strains become resistant which leads to their survival even at high concentrations of soaps.”
“The central structure of the symbiotic association between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is the fungal arbuscule that delivers minerals to the plant. Our earlier transcriptome analyses identified two half-size ABCG transporters that displayed enhanced mRNA levels in mycorrhizal roots. We now show specific transcript accumulation in arbusculated cells of both genes during symbiosis. Presently, arbuscule-relevant factors from monocotyledons have not been reported.
NiAc was administered as an intravenous infusion over 30 min (0, 1, 5 or 20 mu mol kg(-1) of body weight) or over 300 min (0, 5, 10 or 51 mu mol kg(-1) of body weight), to healthy rats (n = 63), and serial
arterial blood samples were taken for measurement of NiAc and NEFA plasma concentrations. Data were analyzed using nonlinear mixed effects modeling (NONMEM). The disposition of NiAc was described by a two-compartment model with endogenous turnover rate and two parallel capacity-limited Vorinostat in vivo elimination processes. The plasma concentration of NiAc was driving NEFA (R) turnover via an inhibitory drug-mechanism function acting on the formation of NEFA. The NEFA turnover was described by a feedback model with a moderator distributed over a series of transit compartments, where the first compartment (M(1)) inhibited buy Z-DEVD-FMK the formation of R and the last compartment (M(N)) stimulated the loss of R. All processes regulating plasma NEFA concentrations were assumed
to be captured by the moderator function. The potency, IC(50), of NiAc was 45 nmol L(-1), the fractional turnover rate k(out) was 0.41 L mmol(-1) min(-1) and the turnover rate of moderator k(tol) was 0.027 min(-1). A lower physiological limit of NEFA was modeled as a NiAc-independent release (k(cap)) of NEFA into plasma and was estimated to 0.032 mmol L(-1) min(-1). This model can be used to provide”
“Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is currently one of the most treatment-resistant malignancies and affects approximately three in 10,000 people. The impact of this disease produces about 31,000 new cases in the United States per year; and 12,000 people in the United States alone die from RCC annually. Although several treatment strategies have been investigated for RCC, this cancer continues to be a therapeutic challenge.
For this reason, the aim of our study is to develop a more effective combinational therapy to AZD6738 solubility dmso treat advanced RCC. We examined the effect of vinorelbine on the signalling pathways of two human renal cancer cell lines (A498 and 786-O) and also examined the in vivo effect of vinorelbine treatment alone and vinorelbine in combination with the anti-VEGF antibody 2C3 on A498 and 786-O tumour growth in nude mice. Tumour angiogenesis was measured by vWF staining, and apoptosis was determined by the TUNEL assay. We observed a significant tumour growth inhibition when using a combinational therapy of anti-VEGF antibody 2C3 and vinorelbine in both A498 and 786-O tumour-bearing mice. The results suggest a breakthrough treatment for advanced RCC.”
“No mutations were detected in the hemagglutinin gene of influenza A/H3N2 virus isolates from patients undergoing short-term amantadine treatment. However, genetic changes occurred after serial passage in either MDCK or MDCK-SIAT1 cells. Our results showed that only a few mutations were observed in MDCK-SIAT1-passaged isolates in the presence of amantadine.
(C) 2013 Elsevier Espana, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.”
“Localized amyloidosis is characterized by amyloid protein deposition restricted to one organ or tissue without systemic involvement. JNK-IN-8 datasheet Gastrointestinal manifestations of localized amyloidoma are unusual, which makes amyloidoma restricted to the rectum a very rare diagnosis requiring a high index of suspicion. We present a rare account for rectal amyloidoma with an unusual presentation of obstructive symptoms and its treatment using a sophisticated surgical modality, transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM), which resulted in complete excision of the lesion without hospitalization and complications. The successful treatment
for this rectal amyloidoma using TEM emphasizes the need to broaden its application in the treatment
of various rectal lesions while preserving organ function and decreasing recurrence.”
“The International Chemical Identifier (InChI) has been used to construct InChI-based optimal descriptors to model the binding affinity for fullerene[C60]-based inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 aspartic protease (HIV-1 PR). Statistical characteristics of the one-variable model obtained by the balance of correlations are as follows: n = 8, r(2) = 0.9769, q(LOO)(2) = 0.9646, s = 0.099, F = 254 (subtraining set); n = 7, r(2) = 0.7616, s = 0.681, F = 16 (calibration set); n = 5, r(2) = 0.9724, s = 0.271, F= 106, R(m)(2) = 0.9495 (test set). Predictability of this approach has been checked with Galardin supplier three random splits of the data: into the subtraining set, calibration set, and test set. (C) 2009
Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Neutralizing antibodies (NABs) against IFN beta should be measured in specialized laboratories, using a test of inhibition of the cytopathic effect (bioassay or CPE test), based on the capacity of IFNss to block the infection of live monolayer-cultured cells by a virus, depending 3-MA cell line on the presence or absence of NABs. The European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) considers this assay to be the gold standard. However, the various different ways to perform this assay complicate comparison of the results between laboratories. The World Health Organization (WHO) has published several recommendations to perform this assay using the A549 cell line and the murine encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). In order to validate the results previously obtained in our laboratory with HEP2/VSV, we undertook a comparative analysis of the two bioassays, HEP2/VSV and A549/EMCV, to assess whether the use of different cell lines and viruses influences sensitivity. We also calibrated the A549/EMCV assay with a reference IFNss. Our results confirm that the bioassay with HEP2/VSV is as sensitive as the assay with A549/EMCV and that a significant association and correlation exist in the results between both assays.
The method is of particular interest when a fast and sensitive selective multiple quantum coherence editing is necessary, e.g., for spatial three dimensional experiments. Magn Reson Med 62: 880-887, buy Pevonedistat 2009. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“This work provides a novel view of explaining water uptake behavior commonly observed in legume seeds. A model proposed by Peleg to describe
the mechanical changes in biomaterials transitioning from a glassy state to a rubbery state was used to describe water uptake by legume seeds exhibiting a lag during imbibition and to characterize the mechanical changes of the seed coat as affected by soaking time. The seeds characterized by Peleg’s model possessed seed coats with a glass transition temperature higher than ambient soaking conditions. Alternatively, the water uptake behavior of legume seeds that did not exhibit a lag phase was characterized by an exponential equation used in polymer science to model solvent sorption by materials above their glass transition. A modified exponential equation was developed to model the mechanical behavior of these seed coats as affected by soaking time. Seeds characterized by the exponential equation possessed seed coats with a glass transition temperature near ambient soaking conditions. This work demonstrates, through the use
this website of two separate models, water uptake behavior of legume seeds can be explained by the glass transition temperature of the seed coat.”
“Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be formed from somatic cells by a defined set of genetic factors; however, aberrant epigenetic silencing of the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 gene cluster often hinders their
developmental potency and ability to contribute to high-grade chimerism in mice. Here, we describe an approach that allows splenic B cells activated to undergo Ig heavy-chain (IgH) class-switch recombination (CSR) to be reprogrammed into iPSCs that contribute to high-grade chimerism in mice. Treatment of naive splenic B cells in culture with anti-CD40 plus IL-4 induces IgH CSR from IgM to IgG1 HKI 272 and IgE. CSR leads to irreversible IgH locus deletions wherein the IgM-producing C mu exons are permanently excised from the B-cell genome. We find that anti-CD40 plus IL-4-activated B cells produce iPSCs that are uniformly hypermethylated in the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 gene cluster and fail to produce chimerism in mice. However, treatment of activated B cells with the methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine before and at early stages of reprogramming attenuates hypermethylation of the Dlk1-Dio3 locus in resultant iPSCs and enables them to form high-grade chimerism in mice. These conditions allowed us to produce chimeric mice in which all mature B cells were derived entirely from IgG1-expressing B-cell-derived iPSCs. We conclude that culture conditions of activated B cells before and at early stages of reprogramming influence the developmental potency of resultant iPSCs.
Standards that lead to research protocols that alienate key interests are not likely to be sustainable. Already, standards that have conflicted with the primary values of a key interest have resulted in disruptions to research and scientific progress. One way to manage this problem of deeply competing interests is to avoid
the deepest offenses to any relevant interest group in the design of a proposed study. This is an application of the precautionary principle and is likely to generate a more sustainable balance among competing interests. Unfortunately, this process is also likely to BVD-523 purchase be a never-ending, consensus-seeking process. Fortunately, scientists can have enormous influence on the process if they choose to engage in it early. If scientists use their expertise to function as honest brokers among affected interests, their own interest in scientific research progress LGX818 manufacturer is likely to be better met.”
“Shipboard grazing experiments were conducted in the Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank during of June 2006 to estimate zooplankton community grazing impact on a natural bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense. Surface seawater samples
containing natural populations of grazers and A. fundyense from 23 stations were incubated at ambient temperatures. Concentrations of A. fundyense after incubations were compared to those at the start of each experiment to determine net increases due to population growth, or decreases presumed to be primarily due to grazing losses. Abundances of both microzooplankton (tintinnids, oligotrich ciliates, rotifers, copepod nauplii and heterotrophic dinoflagellates) and mesozooplankton https://www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD0530.html (copepod nauplii, copepodites and adult copepods, rotifers,
marine cladocerans, and meroplankton) grazers in experimental aliquots were also determined. The total zooplankton community had minimal grazing impact on natural populations of A. fundyense at most stations. At 70% of the stations where grazing experiments were performed, there were no significant differences in initial and final concentrations of A. fundyense. This indicated that growth of, and grazing on A. fundyense were in approximate balance. At 2 stations, which had the highest A. fundyense abundances of the cruise (>10(4) cells l(-1)), % of the A. fundyense population grazed per day was significantly negative, indicating that net population growth of A. fundyense exceeded grazing losses. At 5 stations, which had low concentrations of A. fundyense (10(2)-10(3) cells l(-1)), % of the A. fundyense population grazed per day was significantly positive, indicating that losses of A. fundyense due to grazing exceeded net population growth. For stations with significant differences between Initial and Grazed concentrations of A. fundyense, grazing had the greatest impact at lower concentrations of A. fundyense, and grazing impact by the larger mesozooplankton was inversely related to zooplankton abundance.