No mechanical or hemorrhagic injury was observed in the hippocampus. In vehicle controls assessed at 48 h, SAH was associated with robust neuroinflammation in the adjacent cortex [neutrophils, activated phagocytic microglia, nuclear factor-kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1beta] and neurodegeneration (Fluoro-Jade C staining and loss of NeuN). In the hippocampus, a muted neuroinflammatory response was indicated by
find more Iba1-positive, ED1-negative microglia exhibiting an activated morphology. The perforant pathway showed Fluoro-Jade C staining and demyelination, and granule cells of the dentate gyms had pyknotic nuclei, labeled with Fluoro-Jade C and showed upregulation of cleaved caspase-3, consistent
with transsynaptic apoptosis. Administration of heparin significantly reduced neuroinflammation, demyelination, Rabusertib and transsynaptic apoptosis. We conclude that delayed IV infusion of low-dose unfractionated heparin may attenuate adverse neuroinflammatory effects of SAH.”
“We describe the first case to our knowledge of Hafnia alvei pyelonephritis in a renal transplant recipient. Clinicians should consider this under-recognized pathogen when clinically evaluating immunosuppressed patients with a history of invasive procedures.”
“A 65-year-old man developed progressive worsening of right-sided limb-kinetic apraxia and extrapyramidal dysfunction. His left internal carotid artery was found to be occluded, and there was general atrophy and severely decreased cerebral blood flow in the left hemisphere. He had experienced an acute infarction in the left watershed area before superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass Selleck Blasticidin S surgery. After surgery, the cerebral blood flow in the left hemisphere was remarkably improved. Unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion may result in clinical manifestations similar to corticobasal degeneration.”
“Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality and
is an independent predictor of a worse outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH). IVH may result in both injuries to the brain as well as hydrocephalus. This paper reviews evidence on the mechanisms and potential treatments for IVH-induced hydrocephalus. One frequently cited theory to explain hydrocephalus after IVH involves obliteration of the arachnoid villi by microthrombi with subsequent inflammation and fibrosis causing CSF outflow obstruction. Although there is some evidence to support this theory, there may be other mechanisms involved, which contribute to the development of hydrocephalus. It is also unclear whether the causes of acute and chronic hydrocephalus after hemorrhage occur via different mechanisms: mechanical obstruction by blood in the former and inflammation and fibrosis in the latter.