Furthermore, ambuic acid also inhibited the biosynthesis of the cyclic peptide quormones of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua. These results suggest the potential use of ambuic acid as a lead compound of antipathogenic drugs that target the quorum-sensing-mediated virulence
expression of gram-positive bacteria.”
“Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 produces dissimilar phytase isozymes under solid state and submerged fermentation conditions. Biochemical characterization and applications of GDC-0994 ic50 phytase Phy III and Phy IV in SSF and their comparison with submerged fermentation Phy I and Phy III were studied. SSF phytases have a higher metabolic potential as compared to SmF. Phy I is tetramer and Phy II, III and IV are monomers. Phy I and IV have pH optima of 2.5 and Phy II and III have pH optima of 5.0 and 5.6, respectively. Phy I, III and IV exhibited very broad substrate specificity while Phy II was more specific for sodium phytate. SSF phytase is less thermostable as compared to SmF phytase. Phy land II show homology with other known phytases while Phy III and IV show no homology with SmF phytases and any other known phytases from the literature suggesting their unique nature. This is the first report about differences among phytase produced under SSF and SmF by A. niger and this study provides basis for explanation of the stability check details and catalytic
differences observed for these enzymes. Exclusive biochemical characteristics and multilevel application of
SSF native phytases determine their efficacy and is exceptional. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Potato is the world’s third most important food crop, yet cultivar improvement and genomic research in general remain difficult because of the heterozygous and tetraploid nature of its genome. The development of physical map resources that can facilitate genomic analyses in potato has so far been very limited. Here we present the methods of construction and the general statistics of the first two genome-wide BAC physical maps of potato, which were made from the heterozygous diploid clone RH89-039-16 (RH).\n\nResults: First, a gel electrophoresis-based physical map was made click here by AFLP fingerprinting of 64478 BAC clones, which were aligned into 4150 contigs with an estimated total length of 1361 Mb. Screening of BAC pools, followed by the KeyMaps in silico anchoring procedure, identified 1725 AFLP markers in the physical map, and 1252 BAC contigs were anchored the ultradense potato genetic map. A second, sequence-tag-based physical map was constructed from 65919 whole genome profiling (WGP) BAC fingerprints and these were aligned into 3601 BAC contigs spanning 1396 Mb. The 39733 BAC clones that overlap between both physical maps provided anchors to 1127 contigs in the WGP physical map, and reduced the number of contigs to around 2800 in each map separately. Both physical maps were 1.
Methods: A convenience sample of 130 adults wore a GENEA accelerometer on their left wrist while performing 14 different lifestyle activities. During each activity, oxygen consumption was continuously measured using the Oxycon mobile. Statistical analysis used Spearman’s rank correlations to determine the relationship between measured and estimated intensity classifications. Cross tabulations were constructed to show the under-or overestimation of misclassified CP456773 intensities. One-way chi(2) tests were
used to determine whether the intensity classification accuracy for each activity differed from 80%. Results: For all activities, the GENEA accelerometer-based physical activity monitor explained 41.1% of the variance in energy expenditure. LOXO-101 in vivo The intensity classification accuracy was 69.8% for sedentary
activities, 44.9% for light activities, 46.2% for moderate activities, and 77.7% for vigorous activities. The GENEA correctly classified intensity for 52.9% of observations when all activities were examined; this increased to 61.5% with stationary cycling removed. Conclusions: A wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer has modest-intensity classification accuracy across a broad range of activities when using the cut points of Esliger et al. Although the sensitivity and the specificity are less than those reported by Esliger et al., they are generally in the same range as those reported for waist-worn, uniaxial accelerometer cut points.”
“Electron transfer (ET) reactions are important for their implications in both oxidative and reductive DNA damages. The current contribution selleckchem investigates the efficacy of caffeine, a xanthine alkaloid in preventing UVA radiation induced ET from a carcinogen, benzo[a]pyrene (BP) to DNA by forming stable caffeine-BP complexes. While steady-state emission and absorption results emphasize the role of caffeine in hosting BP in aqueous medium, the molecular modeling studies propose the energetically favorable structure of caffeine-BP complex. The picosecond-resolved emission spectroscopic studies precisely
explore the caffeine-mediated inhibition of ET from BP to DNA under UVA radiation. The potential therapeutic activity of caffeine in preventing DNA damage has been ensured by agarose gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, time-gated fluorescence microscopy has been used to monitor caffeine-mediated exclusion of BP from various cell lines including squamous epithelial cells, WI-38 (fibroblast), MCF-7 (breast cancer) and HeLa (cervical cancer) cells. Our in vitro and ex vivo experimental results provide imperative evidences about the role of caffeine in modified biomolecular recognition of a model carcinogen BP by DNA resulting dissociation of the carcinogen from various cell lines, implicating its potential medicinal applications in the prevention of other toxic organic molecule induced cellular damages. Copyright (C) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
001) underperformed MAPK inhibitor local students, as did males (p smaller than .001) and those who had been identified as having low English proficiency in
year 1 (p smaller than .01). Males (p smaller than .01) and one non-local ethnic group (p smaller than .01) were also more likely to have to repeat a year of study. Ethnicity was a stronger predictor than English proficiency or acculturation, but English proficiency was still independently and additively predictive. This suggests that targeted support strategies for students with lower English language proficiency are still important, but that cultural differences should not be underestimated.”
“Regulatory T cells (Tregs) exert a key role in tolerance induction to the semi-allogeneic fetus. Currently, it is not known whether immunological rejection processes are involved in the induction of normal term or irresistible preterm labor. In this study, we examined whether there were differences in the percentage of the total CD4(+)CD127(low+/-)CD25(+)FoxP(3+)-Treg-cell pool, its suppressive activity and its composition with distinct Treg subsets
(HLA-DRlow+-, HLA-DRhigh+-, HLA-DR– and naive CD45RA(+)-Tregs) between preterm and term laboring women. We found that its percentage was decreased neither in term nor in preterm laboring women. Its suppressive activity was strongly diminished MK-8931 supplier in preterm laboring women and to a lesser extent in spontaneously term laboring women. During the normal course of pregnancy, its composition changed in such a way that the percentage of naive CD45RA(+)-Tregs increased while the percentage of the highly suppressive HLA-DRlow(+)- and HLA-DRhigh+-Tregs decreased significantly until term. With the onset of spontaneous term labor this phenomenon was reversed and reached significant values postpartum. In addition, we confirmed that both the decreased percentage of HLA-DR+-Tregs within the total Treg-cell pool and their decreased level of HLA-DR expression (depending on the percentage of HLA-DRlow+- and HLA-DRhigh+-Tregs)
had a reducing effect on the suppressive activity of the total Treg cell pool in preterm laboring women. However, spontaneous term delivery was associated with increasing percentages of HLA-DR+-Tregs and increasing HLA-DR expression of this Treg subset. Therefore, Selleckchem PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor it becomes apparent that the mechanisms inducing term or preterm labor may be completely different. Immunology and Cell Biology (2012) 90, 935-944; doi: 10.1038/icb.2012.33; published online 3 July 2012″
“The aim of this study was to evaluate how different granule size distributions affect the tablet compression process. The emphasis was on developing new analytic methods for compression data for entire batch. In all, 18 batches of granules containing theophylline and lactose were tabletted, using an instrumented eccentric tabletting machine. During tablet compression, upper and lower punch forces were recorded.
However, the higher number of the volunteers presented lower calcium level (83,09%). The frequency of anemic women was high (24%). Significant associations (P smaller than 0.05) were observed between the anxiety symptom and sodium (r = 0,2630); and magnesium and depression (r = 0,2508) and nauseas (r = 2882). Conclusions: The anemia and hypocalcemia is a important nutritional problem. The regulation of the calcium serum level seems to be affected in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle Selleckchem BAY 57-1293 and the
sodium and magnesium ions influence some psychological (anxiety and depression) and gastrointestinal (nausea and constipation) symptoms.”
“BACKGROUND Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are characterized by elevated atherogenic lipoprotein particles, predominantly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), which is associated with accelerated atherogenesis and increased cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVES This study used F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET) to investigate whether arterial inflammation is higher in patients with FH and, moreover, whether lipoprotein apheresis attenuates arterial wall inflammation in FH patients. METHODS
In total, 38 subjects were recruited: 24 FH patients and 14 normolipidemic controls. All subjects underwent FDG-PET imaging at baseline. Twelve FH patients who met the criteria for lipoprotein apheresis underwent apheresis procedures followed by a second FDG-PET imaging 3 days (range 1 to 4 days) after apheresis. Subsequently, the target-to-background ratio (TBR) of FDG uptake within the arterial wall was assessed. RESULTS In FH patients,
the mean arterial see more TBR was higher compared with healthy controls (2.12 +/- 0.27 vs. 1.92 +/- 0.19; p = 0.03). A significant correlation was observed between baseline arterial TBR and LDL-C (R = 0.37; p = 0.03) that remained significant after adjusting for statin use (beta = 0.001; p = 0.02) and atherosclerosis risk factors (beta = 0.001; p = 0.03). LDL-C levels were significantly reduced after lipoprotein apheresis (284 +/- 118 mg/dl vs. 127 +/- 50 mg/dl; p smaller than 0.001). There was a significant reduction of arterial inflammation after lipoprotein click here apheresis (TBR: 2.05 +/- 0.31 vs. 1.91 +/- 0.33; p smaller than 0.02). CONCLUSIONS The arterial wall of FH patients is characterized by increased inflammation, which is markedly reduced after lipoprotein apheresis. This lends support to a causal role of apoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in arterial wall inflammation and supports the concept that lipoprotein-lowering therapies may impart anti-inflammatory effects by reducing atherogenic lipoproteins. (C) 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.”
“From its origins in how the brain controls the endocrine system via the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, neuroendocrinology has evolved into a science that now includes hormone action on many aspects of brain function.
We determined the structure of the human mGlu(1) receptor seven-transmembrane (7TM) domain bound to a negative allosteric modulator, FITM, at a resolution of 2.8 angstroms. The modulator binding site partially
overlaps with the orthosteric binding sites of class A GPCRs but is more restricted than most other GPCRs. We observed a parallel 7TM dimer mediated by cholesterols, which suggests that signaling initiated by glutamate’s interaction with the extracellular domain might be mediated via 7TM interactions within the full-length receptor dimer. A combination of crystallography, structure-activity relationships, mutagenesis, and full-length dimer modeling provides insights about the allosteric modulation and activation mechanism of class C GPCRs.”
“Background Imbalance between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems Fludarabine is a recognized contributor to progression of chronic heart failure. Current therapy with beta adrenergic antagonists is designed to moderate the up-regulation of norepinephrine and sympathetic
effects; however, to date, there are no therapies that specifically address the withdrawal of parasympathetic influences on cardiac function and structure.\n\nMethods/Results In order to evaluate the impact of vagus nerve stimulation, an international multi-center randomized clinical trial (INOVATE-HF) has been designed to assess safety and efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation in symptomatic patients SHP099 smiles with heart failure on optimal medical therapy using the CardioFit System (BioControl Medical, Yehud, Israel). Up to 650 patients from 80 sites will be recruited and Torin 1 nmr randomized in a 3:2 ratio to receive active treatment or standard optimal medical therapy. Inclusion criteria include left ventricular systolic dysfunction, the presence of New York Heart Association Class III symptoms, sinus rhythm, and QRS width less than 120 milliseconds. The study is powered to detect differences in the primary efficacy end point of all-cause mortality and heart failure hospitalization and 2 safety end points.\n\nConclusion Vagal nerve stimulation with CardioFit as a treatment for symptomatic heart failure
is under active investigation as a novel approach to restore balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. If shown to be safe and effective in decreasing heart failure events and mortality, this novel approach will impact the treatment paradigm for heart failure. (Am Heart J 2012;163:954-962.e1.)”
“Brooding of egg masses by a squid in Japan is described. Brooding females were photographed in situ, and the females, their eggs, and their hatchlings were collected. The squid had all undergone gelatinous degeneration and swam slowly and continuously by undulating the fins and expelling water sporadically through the funnel. Eggs were held together by a dark, viscous material that formed a single-layer, sheet-like mass, from which hatchlings were seen to emerge.
Newly emerged larvae of C. carnea were fed 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 fresh eggs of Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in 9 cm petri dishes. It was observed that the prey density had a significant effect on positive consumption rate, development and fecundity learn more of C. carnea. In general maximum consumption with shortest developmental time, maximum fecundity and longest adult longevity were observed as prey density increased. In all treatments, predatory potential was
high when the prey density was raised. Daily predation rate of C. carnea increased slowly during the first two instars and reached to its peak in the third larval instar. Although, C. carnea completed its development at all ACY-241 solubility dmso prey densities, the increase in prey densities reduced developmental
time and mortality. Lacewing larvae provided with an overabundance of S. cerealella eggs developed faster than the larvae provided with fewer eggs. Lacewing fed during larval stage with 20 eggs/day showed lowest fecundity with the increase in prey density. A smaller intrinsic rate of increase was due to the fact that the population fed at a low prey density had prolonged developmental time, higher mortality rate in immature stages as well as a low daily rate of progeny.”
“The 10-valent Poziotinib Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) (Synflorix (TM)) includes ten serotype-specific polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae, eight of which are conjugated individually to a nonlipidated cell-surface lipoprotein
(protein D) of non-typeable H. influenzae and two of which are conjugated to nontoxic tetanus or diphtheria toxoid carrier proteins. This article provides an overview of the well-established immunogenicity of PHiD-CV, including functional immune responses and immunologic memory, as well as immune responses in preterm infants and HIV-infected children. It also includes a brief discussion of cross-protection against vaccine-related serotypes (6A and 19A) and focuses on labelling in the EU, where PHiD-CV is approved for active immunization against invasive disease, pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM) caused by S. pneumoniae in infants and young children up to 5 years of age. Evidence of the protective efficacy and effectiveness of PHiD-CV against pneumococcal diseases is available from several studies, including the randomized, double-blind trials COMPAS (Clinical Otitis Media and Pneumonia Study) and FinIP (Finnish Invasive Pneumococcal disease), as well as postmarketing studies from various countries.
05). Tam 0.2 mg significantly suppressed 10 of the 11 tested symptom
categories except straining (P < 0.05). Comparison data of the two drugs tended to show Naf 75 mg had better efficacy on nocturia frequency than Tam 0.2 mg (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Naf 75 mg might show a better efficacy for LUTS with BPH in nocturia frequency than Tam 0.2 mg.”
“The goal of the present study was to investigate production of cellulase in low cost medium by thermotolerant yeast. After screening, an efficient yeast isolate having capability of C-1 (exo-gluconase) Panobinostat chemical structure and Cx (endo-gluconase) production was isolated and designated as strain R-1. Maximum enzyme production was achieved at 50 degrees C, pH 5.5 in the medium containing bagasse powder 4% (w/v), and ammonium sulphate 0.1% (w/v) after 72 hours of incubation. The composition containing bagasse powder, 4% (w/v); ammonium sulphate, 0.5 %(w/v); and glucose, 0.5% (w/v) achieved better production after complete medium optimization. The yeast isolate was able to tolerate wide ranges of temperature, pH, and substrate concentration for higher enzyme production. The isolated yeast was able to produce C-1 (exo-gluconase) AZD9291 order and Cx (endo-gluconase) enzymes in appropriate
concentrations on a crude cellulosic substrate. Therefore, yeast may be used to power alcohol production.”
“Sorafenib, a novel orally-available multikinase inhibitor blocking several crucial oncogenic signaling pathways, presented survival benefits and became the first-line drug for treatment of patients with Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the acquired resistance to Sorafenib resulted in limited benefits. In this study, we aimed to explore possible agents that might overcome Sorafenib resistance by bioinformatics methods. The gene expression profiles of HCC-3sp (acquired Sorafenib-resistance) and HCC-3p (Sorafenib-sensitive) cell line were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Then, the differentially
expressed genes (DEGs) were selected using dChip software. Furthermore, Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses were performed by DAVID database. Finally, the Connectivity AC220 in vitro Map was utilized to predict potential chemicals for reversing Sorafenib resistance. Consequently, a total of 541 DEGs were identified, which were associated with cell extracellular matrix, cell adhesion and binding-related items. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that 8 dysfunctional pathways were enriched. Finally, several small molecules, such as pregnenolone and lomustine, were screened out as potential therapeutic agents capable of overcoming Sorafenib resistance. The data identified some potential small molecule drugs for treatment of Sorafenib resistance and offered a novel strategy for investigation and treatments of HCC.”
“For successful fertilization to occur, molecules on the surface of male and female gametes must recognize each other in a complementary manner.
Our results also demonstrated that grafting ‘Moneymaker’ into ‘Maxifort’ did not mitigate the negative effects of ammonium nutrition on tomato productivity. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published
by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Heart failure is a growing global epidemic that involves in its pathophysiology a proinflammatory state. Since the first description of elevated cytokine levels in this setting, there has been increasing interest in understanding the role of these molecules in left-ventricular remodeling and function. Over the years, intense research Proteasome inhibitor on the ‘cytokine theory’ of heart failure has allowed evaluation of the role of inflammatory biomarkers not only as pathogenetic mediators, but also as potential tools in the diagnosis and risk stratification of heart failure patients. Whereas GW4869 nmr current evidence does not support the use of inflammatory biomarkers for the diagnosis of heart failure, the assessment of their levels and the connection between their changes and changes in clinical status and prognosis has been well validated. At present, the utility of anti-inflammatory therapies
in heart failure is still debated, since trials of anti-inflammatory agents in this setting have pointed out controversial results. On the contrary, established treatments of heart failure, including beta-blockers, renin-angiotensin system antagonists, and aldosterone-receptor blockers seem able to act by modulating cytokine expression, suggesting a new role for these molecules in guiding heart failure therapy. Therefore, the binomial topic of heart failure and inflammation still has a number of fields not completely explored: our aim is to update current knowledge and future perspectives.”
“Type https://www.selleckchem.com/products/poziotinib-hm781-36b.html IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are versatile secretion systems that
are found in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and secrete a wide range of substrates, from single proteins to protein-protein and protein-DNA complexes. They usually consist of 12 components that are organized into ATP-powered, double-membrane-spanning complexes. The structures of single soluble components or domains have been solved, but an understanding of how these structures come together has only recently begun to emerge. This Review focuses on the structural advances that have been made over the past 10 years and how the corresponding structural insights have helped to elucidate many of the details of the mechanism of type IV secretion.”
“Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium with a unique biphasic developmental cycle that can cause persistent infections. In humans, Chlamydia causes airway infection and has been implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and atherosclerosis. In addition, recent studies demonstrated that patients with severe periodontitis can harbor C. pneumoniae, which can increase the risk for a host inflammatory response with weighty clinical sequelae.
Moreover, punctured tori were reported in various Pinaceae species. Species resistant
to cavitation had thicker tracheid walls, while their lumen diameter (conduit size) was only slightly reduced, minimizing the impact on hydraulic Napabucasin cost conductance. The results also demonstrated (i) the existence of an indirect trade-off between hydraulic safety and mechanical strength; and (ii) a consistency between species distribution and xylem anatomy: species with a wide torus overlap and high valve effects are found in arid environments such as the Mediterranean region.”
“Pedicle screw (PS) fixation has been widely used for spine diseases. Scientists and clinicians employ several approaches to navigate PS during operation. We have demonstrated the feasibility of monitoring the reduced scattering coefficient (mu(s)’) on the trajectory of PS using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). To perform the in-vitro
monitoring, an NIRS measurement system was introduced CH5424802 manufacturer and the reduced scattering coefficients of different sites in porcine pedicle were accurately deduced from the spectrum. Moreover, the changes of the reduced scattering coefficient along the different paths were studied. The results show reduced scattering coefficients on different regions of bones can be significantly distinguished. Furthermore, monitoring experiments along different paths confirmed that a reduced scattering coefficient would change versus the depth of puncture in pedicles. Thus, the proposed monitoring system this website based on NIRS provides a potential for guiding PS during operation. (C) The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.”
“Quantifying the risk of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)-related mortality for pediatric patients is challenging. The HCT-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) has
been confirmed as a useful tool in adults, but has not yet been validated in children. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 252 pediatric patients undergoing their first allogeneic HCT between January 2008 and May 2009. Pretransplantation comorbidities were scored prospectively using the HCT-CI. Median age at transplantation was 6 years (range, 0.1-20) and median follow-up was 343 days (range, 110-624). HCT-CI scores were distributed as follows: 0, n = 139; 1-2, n = 52; and 3+, n = 61. The 1-year cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) increased (10%, 14%, and 28%, respectively; P < .01) and overall survival (OS) decreased (88%, 67%, and 62%, respectively; P < .01) with increasing HCT-CI score. Multivariate analysis showed that compared with score 0, those with scores of 1-2 and 3+ had relative risks of NRM of 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 0.5-4.3, P = .48) and 4.
Additionally, a PCR assay for “Candidatus Mycoplasma Selleckchem Autophagy inhibitor haemominutum” (“Candidatus M. haemominutum”) DNA was positive. Although unproven, an infection with “Candidatus M. haemominutum” could have contributed to the immune-mediated destruction of red blood cell precursors. The cat recovered completely after treatment, which consisted of multiple blood transfusions, antimicrobial agents, and long-term prednisolone therapy (10 months). There were no signs of clinical relapse
at 20 months after cessation of therapy.”
“As part of the Gulf of Maine Toxicity (GOMTOX(1)) project, we determined Alexandrium fundyense abundance, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin levels in various plankton size fractions, and the community composition of potential grazers of A. fundyense in plankton size fractions during blooms of this toxic dinoflagellate in the coastal Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank in spring and summer of 2007, 2008, and 2010. PSP toxins and A. fundyense cells were found throughout the sampled water column (down to 50 m) in the 20-64 gm size fractions. While PSP toxins were widespread throughout all size classes of the zooplankton grazing community, the majority of the toxin was measured in the 20-64 mu m size fraction. A.
fundyense cellular SBI-0206965 ic50 toxin content estimated from field samples was significantly higher in the coastal Gulf of Maine than on Georges Bank. Most samples containing PSP toxins in the present study had diverse assemblages of grazers. However, some samples clearly suggested PSP toxin accumulation in several different grazer taxa including tintinnids, heterotrophic dinoflagellates of the genus Protoper-idinium, barnacle nauplii, the harpacticoid copepod Microsetella norvegica, the calanoid copepods Calanus finmarchicus and Pseudocalanus spp., the marine cladoceran Evadne nordmanni, and hydroids of the genus Clytia. Thus, a diverse assemblage of zooplankton
grazers accumulated PSP this website toxins through food-web interactions. This raises the question of whether PSP toxins pose a potential human health risk not only from nearshore bivalve shellfish, but also potentially from fish and other upper-level consumers in zooplankton-based pelagic food webs. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The glycosyltransferase SnogD from Streptomyces nogalater transfers a nogalamine moiety to the metabolic intermediate 3′,4′-demethoxynogalose-1-hydroxynogalamycinone during the final steps of biosynthesis of the aromatic polyketide nogalamycin. The crystal structure of recombinant SnogD, as an apo-enzyme and with a bound nucleotide, 2-deoxyuridine-5′-diphosphate, was determined to 2.6 angstrom resolution.