As shown in Figures 1B and 1C, these transheterozygotes slept much less than heterozygous controls
did, exhibited reduced sleep bout duration during the day and night ( Figure 1D, top and center), and displayed prolonged latency to sleep onset at the beginning of the night ( Figure 1D, bottom). Importantly, cv-cC524/cv-cMB03717 mutants showed no change in the intensity of waking locomotor activity ( Figure 1E) or the levels of arousal thresholds during sleep when compared to heterozygous controls ( Figure 1F). This suggests that the mutant’s decreased sleep time is not a consequence of hyperactivity due to heightened arousal. We further verified that the insomnia of mutants was the result of molecular BIBW2992 nmr lesions at the cv-c locus by examining sleep patterns in heteroallelic combinations of four independently generated mutant alleles. All of the tested allelic combinations exhibited decreases in total sleep time relative to heterozygous controls ( Figure 1C). Altogether, these results demonstrate that mutations in cv-c interfere with the initiation and/or maintenance of sleep. To distinguish between possible roles of cv-c
in circadian and homeostatic sleep regulation, we first tested whether the sleep phenotypes of cv-c mutants could be attributed to disruption of the circadian clock. cv-cC524/cv-cMB03717 mutants and heterozygous Metformin controls were entrained to a 12 hr light/12 hr dark cycle, and their free-running locomotor rhythms were subsequently analyzed in constant darkness. Over the course of 7 days in darkness, controls and mutants retained robust circadian rhythmicity ( Figure 2A). All genotypes exhibited similar mean circadian periods,
as measured by χ2 periodogram ( Figures 2A and 2B), indicating that cv-c mutations cause sleep disruptions through pathways that are independent of the circadian clock. To examine whether the insomnia of cv-c mutants might be associated with impaired homeostatic regulation, we mechanically deprived flies of sleep for 12 hr overnight and measured the amount of sleep that was regained over the following 24 hr. cv-cC524/cv-cMB03717 Vasopressin Receptor mutants made up for a significantly lower percentage of their lost sleep than either cv-cC524/+ or cv-cMB03717/+ controls ( Figures 2C and S2A). Although these data demonstrate that the homeostatic response to sleep deprivation is abrogated by a loss of Cv-c function, they do not distinguish between an inability to compensate for sleep loss and an overall reduced sleep requirement of mutants. To differentiate between these possibilities, we measured the ability of flies to form associative short-term memories. Sleep deprivation impairs memory formation in a variety of species, including humans ( Stickgold et al., 2001), mice ( Florian et al., 2011), and Drosophila ( Bushey et al., 2007, Li et al., 2009b and Seugnet et al., 2008).