The experiment and corresponding theoretical calculations point to the way that 2D experiments can be designed to probe particular interactions in a multi-chromophore system and thus yield detailed quantitative insight on the coupling strengths and relative orientations between transition dipole moments. Fig. 8 Theoretical and
experimental spectra of FMO from Prosthecochloris aestuarii at T = 400 fs and 77 K (nonrephasing part, for details, see Read et al. 2008). Top row, left to right: theoretical <0°, 0°, 0°, 0°>, <45°, −45°, 0°, 0°>, and <75°, −75°, 0°, 0°> 2D spectra. The top right panel shows experimental and theoretical Selumetinib molecular weight linear absorption spectra in black and red, respectively, and the dotted line is the laser spectrum of the pulses used to measure 2D spectra. Bottom row, left to right: experimental <0°, 0°, 0°, 0°>, <45°, −45°, 0°, 0°>, and <75°, −75°, 0°, 0°> 2D spectra. The differently polarized spectra show different cross peak amplitudes. In particular, a strong cross peak visible in the <75°, −75°, 0°, 0°> spectrum is absent from the <45°, −45°, 0°, 0°> spectrum. Figure
reprinted with permission from Biophysical Society, Read et al. (2008); Copyright 2008 Conclusions In summary, photon echo-based click here experiments may be designed to probe a number of aspects of photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes in detail, including coupling among pigments, coupling between pigments and the surrounding protein environment, contributions to spectral broadening, dynamical time scales, and mechanisms of energy transfer in light harvesting. Perhaps most exciting at this juncture is the recently realized capability of photon echo Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 TGF-beta inhibitor techniques to directly probe the quantum mechanical underpinnings of ultrafast energy transfer in photosynthesis, first discussed over 50 years ago (see review by Knox 1996), but elusive of direct experimental observation until now. The experiments described above demonstrate some of the experimental techniques that can be utilized to probe various aspects of light harvesting
in detail. However, the flexibility of photon echo techniques means that a myriad of different experiments could be devised in addition to those outlined here in this review. From an experimental standpoint, the technological implementation of photon echo experiments is still in an early phase. While routine generation of sub-100 fs pulses has now been achieved, phase detection and control still present a problem for programmable pulse sequences, which would significantly aid in widespread applicability of these techniques. Thus, coming years will likely see rapid expansion of experimental methods related to those described here, and much is to be gained in our understanding of photosynthetic light harvesting from such developments.