(C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: To determine whether magnetic resonance (MR) imaging

and MR spectroscopic imaging findings can improve predictions made with the Kattan nomogram for radiation therapy.\n\nMaterials and Methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective HIPAA-compliant study. Ninety-nine men who underwent endorectal MR and MR spectroscopy before external-beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer (January 1998 to June 2007) were included. Linear predictors were calculated with input variables from the study sample and the Kattan original coefficients. The linear predictor is a single weighted value selleck chemicals llc that combines information of all predictor

variables in a model, where the weight of each value is its association with the outcome. Two radiologists independently reviewed all MR images to determine extent of disease; a third independent reader resolved discrepancies. Biochemical failure was defined as a serum prostate-specific antigen level of 2 ng/mL (2 mu g/L) or more above nadir. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the probabilities of treatment failure (biochemical failure) in 5 years. One model included only the Kattan nomogram data; the other also incorporated imaging findings. The discrimination performance of all models was determined with receiver operating characteristics FK228 (ROC) curve analyses. These analyses were followed by an assessment of net risk reclassification.\n\nResults: The areas under the ROC curve for the Kattan nomogram and the model incorporating MR imaging findings were 61.1% (95% confidence interval: 58.1%, 64.0%) and 78.0% (95% confidence interval: 75.7%, 80.4%), respectively. Comparison of performance showed that the model with imaging findings performed significantly better than did the model with

clinical variables alone (P < .001). Overall, the addition buy NU7441 of imaging findings led to an improvement in risk classification of about 28%, ranging from approximately a minimum of 16% to a maximum of 39%, depending on the risk change considered important.\n\nConclusion: MR imaging data improve the prediction of biochemical failure with the Kattan nomogram after external-beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer. The number needed to image to improve the prediction of biochemical failure in one patient ranged from three to six. (C) RSNA, 2011″
“Guidelines recommend obtaining blood cultures for all patients admitted with pneumonia. However, recent American studies have reported the low impact of these cultures on antibiotic therapy. Our aim was to investigate the incidence of bacteremia and change of therapy in admitted pneumonia patients from whom blood cultures were obtained in the emergency department (ED).

The aforementioned technologies provide clinical data with a vari

The aforementioned technologies provide clinical data with a variety of resolution, implementation cost, and use complexity, where some of them rely on ionizing radiation. Microwave sensing and imaging (MSI) is an alternative method based on nonionizing electromagnetic BKM120 (EM) signals operating over the frequency range covering hundreds of megahertz to tens of gigahertz. The advantages of using EM signals are low health risk, low cost implementation, low operational cost, ease of use, and user friendliness.

Advancements made in microelectronics, material science, and embedded systems make it possible for miniaturization and integration into portable, handheld, mobile devices with networking capability. MSI has been used for tumor detection, blood clot/stroke detection, heart imaging, bone imaging, cancer detection, and localization of in-body RF sources.

The fundamental notion of MSI is that it exploits the tissue-dependent dielectric contrast to reconstruct signals and images using radar-based or tomographic imaging techniques. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the active MSI for various medical applications, for which the motivation, challenges, possible solutions, and future directions are discussed.”
“Cilia and flagella have essential functions in a wide range of organisms. Cilia assembly is dynamic during development and different BX-795 types of cilia are found in multicellular organisms. How this dynamic and specific LY3023414 molecular weight assembly is regulated remains an important question in cilia biology. In metazoans, the regulation of the overall expression level of key components necessary for cilia assembly or function is an important way to achieve

ciliogenesis control. The FOXJ1 (forkhead box J1) and RFX (regulatory factor X) family of transcription factors have been shown to be important players in controlling ciliary gene expression. They fulfill a complementary and synergistic function by regulating specific and common target genes. FOXJ1 is essential to allow for the assembly of motile cilia in vertebrates through the regulation of genes specific to motile cilia or necessary for basal body apical transport, whereas RFX proteins are necessary to assemble both primary and motile cilia in metazoans, in particular, by regulating genes involved in intraflagellar transport. Recently, different transcription factors playing specific roles in cilia biogenesis and physiology have also been discovered. All these factors are subject to complex regulation to allow for the dynamic and specific regulation of ciliogenesis in metazoans.”
“Background/Aims: Graft size is recognized as one of the most important factors that affect prognosis of the liver recipients. This study determines whether the graft to recipient weight ratio (GRWR) alone can be used to select the liver donor and as an outcome predictor before living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).

First, natural frequencies of CNT under different boundary condit

First, natural frequencies of CNT under different boundary conditions and aspect ratios are obtained by three approaches and the results are compared with published data. The results show the frequency response variations of CNT in GHz to THz range. Subsequently, vibration behaviors of CNT/polymer are evaluated and the results revealed the importance of interphase region role in the performance of nanocomposites. The results also showed the convergence of the natural frequencies for 1-2.5% of CNT volume in high aspect ratios using three methods, so that the interphase effects

is negligible. In addition, it is observed that the molecular method due SBE-β-CD molecular weight to interphase role has proper performance in vibration behavior investigation of volume elements. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Cyanosis is observed in patients with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) and pulmonary hypertension, heart failure represents an important clinical problem in such patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exercise capacity in patients with cyanotic CHDs using cardiopulmonary exercise test, measuring serum BNP levels as well as to seek correlation between BNP levels and cardiopulmonary exercise test parameters and identify the effects of blood oxygen desaturation Z-DEVD-FMK inhibitor and pulmonary hypertension on these indices.\n\nThe study group consisted of

53 patients (21 males) at the mean age of 39.4 +/- 14.3 years, of whom 19 were operated on at the mean age of 9.6 +/- 8.6 years. Mean blood oxygen saturation (SO(2)) in patients was 81.2 +/- 6.2%. Twenty four patients presented with Eisenmenger syndrome, 16 – univentricular hearts, 4 – transposition of the great arteries, 6 – Fallot’s tetralogy, and 3 – Ebstein anomaly. The control group comprised 32 healthy individuals (16 males) at the mean age of 40.7 +/- 9.9 years. Cardiopulmonary stress test showed click here significantly lower exercise capacity

in patients with cyanosis than in controls: maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) 15.5 +/- 4.9 vs. 31.6 +/- 7.1 ml/kg/min (p = 0.00001), maximum heart rate at peak exercise (HR max): 139.5 +/- 22.5 bpm vs. 176.6 +/- 12.1 (p = 0.0001), VE/VCO(2) slope: 46.4 +/- 10.1 vs. 27.3 +/- 2.9 (p = 0.00001), forced vital capacity FVC: 3.1 +/- 1.1 l vs. 4.4 +/- 0.8 l (p = 0.00001). Subjects with the evidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH+) had lower exercise capacity than those without (PH-): VO(2max): 17.2 +/- 4.2 vs. 12.8 +/- 4.8 ml/ kg/min (p = 0.002), VE/VCO(2): 43.7 +/- 11.1 vs. 50.9 +/- 6.4 (p = 0.01), FVC: 3.46 +/- 1.05 l vs. 2.37 +/- 0.91 l (p = 0.0002). Plasma BNP levels in the study group were higher than in controls: 122.4 +/- 106.7 vs. 21.1 +/- 20.2 pg/ml p = 0.00001 and did not differ between PH+ and PH- groups (115.7 +/- 99.0 vs. 127.9 +/- 114.1 pg/ml p = 0.78). Negative correlations between BNP levels and VO(2max) (r = -0.389, p = 0.006), FVC (r = -0.395 p = 0.005), FEV1 (r = -0.386 p = 0.006), SO(2) (r = -0.445 p = 0.

63 ng/mL versus 148 69 +/- 55 27 ng/mL, P < 0 05) Plasma prog

63 ng/mL versus 148.69 +/- 55.27 ng/mL, P < 0.05). Plasma progranulin concentrations correlated

positively with weight, waist circumferences, BMI, HbA1c, TG, IL-6, Prexasertib nmr FINS and HOMA-IR (P < 0.05), while correlated negatively with HOMA-beta (P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI, HbA1c, IL-6 and TG correlated independently with circulating progranulin concentrations (P < 0.05). These results suggested that Plasma progranulin concentrations were higher in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity and correlated closely with glycolipid metabolism, chronic inflammation and IR.”
“PCA3 (prostate cancer gene 3) and multiparametric 3 tesla MRI are new promising diagnostic tools in the detection of PCa. Our aim was to study the clinical value of the Progensa PCA3-test: its predictive value for biopsy outcome, Gleason score and MRI outcome. We evaluated, retrospectively, 591 patients who underwent a Progensa PCA3-test at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre between May 2006 and December 2009. Prostate biopsies were performed in 290 patients; a multiparametric 3 tesla MRI of the prostate was performed in 163/591 patients. The PCA3-score was correlated to biopsy results and MRI outcome. The results show that PCA3 was highly predictive for biopsy outcome (p < 0.001); there

was no correlation with the Gleason score upon biopsy (p = 0.194). The PCA3-score of patients with a suspicious region for PCa on MRI was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in patients with no suspicious region on MRI (52 vs. 21). In conclusion, Selleck GW4869 PCA3 is a valuable diagnostic biomarker for PCa; it did not correlate with the Gleason score. Furthermore, multiparametric MRI outcome was significantly correlated with the PCA3-score. Thus, PCA3 could be used to select patients that require MRI. However, in patients with a negative PCA3 and high clinical suspicion of PCa, a multiparametric MRI should also be

“Blue dye alone (BDA), lymphoscintigraphy alone, or, a combination of the two techniques are used for sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in breast cancer. This study reviews the effectiveness FK228 mw of the SNB technique using BDA by measuring the node identification rate and comparing the cohort node positivity with expected rates from established nomograms. A consecutive case series was examined from the database. This included the learning experience of six surgeons. Patients with unifocal tumors estimated at less than 31 mm were eligible. The tumor and axillary nodal histology was recorded. Published data were then used to calculate and predict node positivity rates in the study according to the size and grade of the tumors. There were 332 SNB procedures from 2001 to 2008. BDA successfully identified nodes in 94.6% (314/332) of the cases. The identification rate improved with experience. In patients with invasive cancer, 28.4% (85/299) of SNB were found to be positive for metastases or micrometastases.

) and coke Methane is the main by-product, and coke formation wa

) and coke. Methane is the main by-product, and coke formation was attributed to the catalytic activity of peripheral reactor components.”
“Background and Purpose: Liver dysfunction led hyperammonemia (HA) causes a nervous system disorder; hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In the brain, ammonia induced

glutamate-excitotoxicity and oxidative stress are considered to play important roles in the pathogenesis of HE. The brain ammonia metabolism and antioxidant enzymes constitute the main components of this mechanism; however, need to be defined in a suitable animal model. This study was aimed to examine this aspect in the rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Methods: ALF in the rats was induced by intraperitoneal administration of

300 mg thioacetamide/Kg. b.w up to 2 days. Glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutaminase (GA), the two brain ammonia metabolizing enzymes vis a vis ammonia JAK inhibitor and glutamate levels and profiles of all the antioxidant enzymes vis a vis oxidative stress markers were measured in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of the control and the ALF rats. Results: The ALF rats showed significantly increased levels of ammonia in the blood (HA) but little changes in the cortex and cerebellum. This was consistent with the activation of the GS-GA cycle and static levels of glutamate in these brain regions. However, significantly increased levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl contents were consistent with the reduced levels of all the antioxidant enzymes PXD101 Epigenetics inhibitor in both the brain regions of these ALF rats. Conclusion: ALF activates the GS-GA cycle to metabolize excess ammonia and thereby, maintains static levels of ammonia and glutamate in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Moreover, ALF induces oxidative stress by reducing the levels of all the antioxidant enzymes which is likely to play important role, independent of glutamate levels, in the pathogenesis of acute HE.”
“In this study, multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models were explored and validated to predict the methane yield of lignocellulosic biomass in mesophilic solid-state anaerobic digestion URMC-099 (SS-AD) based on the feedstock

characteristics and process parameters. Out of the eleven factors analyzed in this study, the inoculation size (F/E ratio), and the contents of lignin, cellulose, and extractives in the feedstock were found to be essential in accurately determining the 30-day cumulative methane yield. The interaction between F/E ratio and lignin content was also found to be significant. MLR and ANN models were calibrated and validated with different sets of data from literature, and both methods were able to satisfactorily predict methane yields of SS-AD, with the lowest standard error for prediction obtained by an ANN model. The models developed in this study can provide guidance for future feedstock evaluation and process optimization in SS-AD.

04 (0 86, 1 27), 1 13 (0 95, 1 36), 1 01 (0 86, 1 18), and 1 18 (

04 (0.86, 1.27), 1.13 (0.95, 1.36), 1.01 (0.86, 1.18), and 1.18 (0.89, 1.56), respectively (P for trend = 0.91). The RRs of CVD mortality across the same categories of coffee intake were 1, 0.99 (0.75, 1.31), 1.03 (0.80, 1.35), 0.97 (0.78, 1.21), and 1.25 (0.85, 1.84), respectively (P for trend = 0.76). Similarly, caffeine intake was not associated with total or CVD mortality. Finally, we observed no association of the most recent coffee and caffeine intakes with total and CVD mortality

in the subsequent Selleckchem PHA-848125 2 y.\n\nConclusion: Consumption of filtered caffeinated coffee was not associated with CVD or all-cause mortality in women with CVD. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94:218-24.”
“Laparoscopic buy Rigosertib sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become a common option in the management of morbid obesity. Although this procedure seems easier, many caveats remain, especially in terms of leakage. Other serious complications include strictures, bleeding, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Strictures are related to operative technique but also to healed leaks and fistulas. To our knowledge, the literature reports on the physiopathology and management of strictures after LSG are scarce.\n\nA retrospective analysis of our

database provided a total of 16 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of strictures. A comprehensive review of each case was done including their management.\n\nSixteen patients were treated laparoscopically for strictures. There were eight females (mean age, 40.6 years). Most common complaints were dysphagia (n = 14) and/or GERD (n = 8). Body Mass Selleckchem GSK2126458 Index was 30.5 kg/m(2) +/- 9.3. Fourteen patients underwent a seromyotomy (SM) and two a wedge resection of the stenosis. After SM, morbidity

included five leaks on the short term and five reoperations in the long-term. Of the 16 patients, 12 were treated satisfactorily, three required endoscopies and one had minimal GERD symptoms.\n\nStrictures and stenosis can be managed by laparoscopic approach with acceptable results. SM can be useful but carries a high complication rate. Accurate technique with parsimonious use of coagulation and possibly with the systematic use of an omental patch might lead to better results. The wedge resection of the stomach including the stricture was performed successfully in two cases. In addition, wedge resection was used secondarily in two other cases to address a complication of the seromyotomy.”
“The authors adopted the angiographic osmotic blood-brain barrier opening method on pigs. During the angiography beside the previously experienced complications, new complications that unambiguously related to the BBB opening have not been occurred.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of soy phyto

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of soy phytoestrogens and the natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol (E-2) to determine whether one of the estrogen receptors is mobilized for the action of these compounds on DNA methylation. We also made a comparative study with a DNA methylation inhibitor (5-azacytidine)

Selleck PLX4032 and a DNA methylation activator (budesonide). Three prostate cell lines, PC-3, DU-145, and LNCaP, were treated with 40 mu M genistein, 110 mu M daidzein, 2 mu M budesonide, 2 mu M 5-azacytidine, and 10 mu M E-2. In these 3 human prostate cancer cell lines, we performed methylation quantification using methyl-profiler-DNA-methylation analysis. Soy phytoestrogens and E-2 induced a demethylation of all the promoter regions https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ml323.html studied except for those that were unmethylated in control cells. Our results showed that E-2 induces, like soy phytoestrogen, a decrease in DNA methylation in prostate cancer cell lines. This action may be mediated through ER beta.”
“BackgroundMelanoma accounts for a small proportion of skin cancers

but is the most serious. The prognosis is, however, good if it is diagnosed early, before the metastatic stages. For these reasons, population awareness and knowledge with regard to melanoma and the associated risk factors are critical to improving the effectiveness of melanoma primary prevention campaigns. ObjectivesThe EDIFICE Melanoma survey was designed to cover a large number of topics related to sun exposure and melanoma: knowledge and awareness of the risks associated with sun and artificial ultraviolet exposure, knowledge of melanoma and the associated risk factors, behaviour regarding protective measures in adults and children. MethodsThe survey questionnaire was administered by experienced independent interviewers from the Kantar Health Institute using the Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview technique. It was important to avoid the effects of contamination’ in answers to questions about sun exposure habits. Questions about exposure habits were

therefore asked before those relating to knowledge of best practices for sun protection. A sample of 1502 individuals aged 18years LY3023414 solubility dmso and over was interviewed. The survey data were weighted to eliminate structural variations between the sample interviewed and the reference population. Quantitative data were described by the means and standard deviations and categorical data by the numbers in each category and corresponding percentages. Three multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted and expressed in terms of odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. ResultsIn addition to the classic questions relating to sociodemographic characteristics, the EDIFICE Melanoma study questionnaire was organized around three themes: the opinion, attitude and knowledge of individuals regarding sun exposure and melanoma. The survey questionnaire lasted approximately 20min.

Measurements and main results: The haemodynamics, histopathol

\n\nMeasurements and main results: The haemodynamics, histopathology of lung tissue, arterial blood gas, lactic acid, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels selleck screening library were measured. Vagus nerve electrical stimulation not only significantly increased the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), but also decreased the infiltration of inflammatory cells into interstitial and alveolar spaces after thermal challenge and attenuated TNF-alpha

and IL-6 production. Hexamethonium pre-treatment significantly reversed the effects of vagal electrical stimulation, but atropine administration before electrical stimulation had no such effects.\n\nConclusions: Direct electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve might produce therapeutic effect on thermal injury. The effect may be realised by limiting the inflammatory response via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rats. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.”
“Objective-To correlate rattlesnake

size and other characteristics of envenomation with the severity of envenomation.\n\nMethods-We retrospectively reviewed 145 charts of patients Pexidartinib cost bitten by rattlesnakes in Southern California between 1995 and 2004, measuring Snakebite Severity Scores (SSS) and characteristics of envenomation that might be correlated with snakebite severity, including rattlesnake size, rattlesnake species, patient size, and anatomic location of the bite. Outcomes measured included SSS, complications of envenomation, number of vials of antivenom used, and length of hospital stay.\n\nResults-Of the patients bitten by rattlesnakes, 81% were men, and 79% of bites were on the upper extremities. Fifty-five percent of bites were provoked by the patient, and 44% were unprovoked. Neither location of snakebite nor provocation of snakebite affected the SSS. Only 1 patient had a snakebite without envenomation, and only 1 patient died from envenomation. Rattlesnake size was positively correlated with SSS, and SSS was positively correlated with the number of vials of antivenom used and with the length

of hospital stay. Rattlesnake species and selleck patient mass did not affect SSS.\n\nConclusions-Larger rattlesnakes cause more severe envenomations, which contradicts popular belief.”
“Purpose Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is associated with lengthy treatment, expensive and potentially toxic regimens, and high rates of treatment failure and death. This study describes the outcomes of 351 MDR-TB patients who started treatment between 2004 and 2007 at the provincial MDR-TB referral hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa, and investigates risk factors associated with death. Methods The study involved the assessment of factors associated with treatment outcomes using a retrospective review of patient records, drug-susceptibility data and spoligotyping of isolates. Results Treatment success (completion/cure) was recorded in 158 (48.8 %) patients, while 65 (20 %) died, 93 (28.

05) were found to be independently predictive of increased DFS T

05) were found to be independently predictive of increased DFS. The presence of serosal selleck chemicals llc perforation was associated with tumour site (p = 0.018), mitotic rate (p = 0.035), tumour diameter (p < 0.001), growth pattern (p = 0.007) and age (p = 0.040).\n\nIn the multidisciplinary management of GIST, serosal perforation may represent an additional predictor of recurrence along with mitotic rate. Complete macroscopic surgical resection is the most reliable prognostic factor, and an aggressive surgical approach should be advocated.”
“Fusarium is a ubiquitous hyalohyphomycete isolated from food, widespread in the environment (plants, soil)

and present at all latitudes. Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani are the most frequent pathogenic species, followed by F. moniliforme and F. chlamydosporum. Infections due to this mold may be disseminated or localized. Localized forms include cutaneous and subcutaneous infection, onychomycosis, endophtalmitis, otitis, sinusitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and brain abscess. Disseminated forms are those in which two or more noncontiguous sites may be involved. These latter are observed in patients with severe neutropenia. Wounds, digital ulcers, onychomycosis, and paronychia are the VS-6063 price typical cutaneous portal of entry. We report a case of primary localized cutaneous infection due to Fusarium in a 29-year-old woman presenting with a nodular lesion, partially ulcerated, asymptomatic

on the first finger of the left hand, appeared

4 months earlier. Histological examination showed spongiosis and acanthosis in the stratum corneum, ulceration and inflammation with prevalently mononucleate cells and septate and branched fungal structures in the epidermis and in dermis. The fungus was identified as Fusarium oxysporum check details by culture of biopsy fragments on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol. The culture was deposited in the culture collection of the mycology section of IHEM, Brussels (IHEM21984 col no. 125). The patient had normal immune status and was successfully treated with surgical excision. Recovery was confirmed at follow-up 8 months later.”
“Genetic relationships among 50 Gentiana accessions, comprising 36 wild species and 14 cultivars, were determined based oil analysis of sequence data for the chloroplast trnL(UAA) intron, the rp116 coding region and the rp116-rp114 intergenic spacer (IGS), together with nuclear DNA content as determined by flow cytometric analysis. The combined chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) data set was analyzed using both neighbor joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods. The NJ and the strict consensus trees were generally congruent with previous phylogenetic and taxonomic Studies, whereas G. cachemirica and G. yakushimensis were classified in different sectional affinities front their prevailing classifications. Three major cpDNA haplotypes (designated A, B and C). comprising 30 accessions in the sections Pneumonanthe. Cruciata. and Kudoa (ser.

A minority of practitioners relied solely on the published ACR cl

A minority of practitioners relied solely on the published ACR classification criteria for the diagnosis of FM. We also report gender bias with regard to disease classification, because rheurnatologists were

more likely to require a physical finding to support a diagnostic conclusion in male patients. (Gend Med. 2010;7:19-27) (C) 2010 Excerpta Medica Inc.”
“Mitochondrial alterations are critically involved in increased vulnerability to disease during aging. We investigated the contribution of mitochondria-sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) communication in cardiomyocyte functional alterations during aging. Heart function (echocardiography) and ATP/phosphocreatine learn more (NMR spectroscopy) were preserved in hearts from old mice (420 months) with respect to young mice (5-6 months). Mitochondrial membrane Panobinostat price potential and resting O-2 consumption were similar in mitochondria from young and old hearts. However, maximal ADP-stimulated O-2 consumption was specifically reduced in interfibrillar mitochondria from aged hearts. Second generation proteomics disclosed an

increased mitochondrial protein oxidation in advanced age. Because energy production and oxidative status are regulated by mitochondrial Ca2+, we investigated the effect of age on mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Although no age-dependent differences were found in Ca2+ uptake kinetics in isolated mitochondria, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake secondary to SR Ca2+ release was significantly reduced in cardiomyocytes from old hearts, and this effect was associated with decreased NAD(P)H regeneration and increased mitochondrial ROS upon increased contractile activity. Immunofluorescence and proximity ligation assay identified the defective communication between mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel and SR ryanodine receptor (RyR) in cardiomyocytes from aged hearts associated

with altered Ca2+ handling. Age-dependent alterations in SR Ca2+ transfer to mitochondria and in Ca2+ HSP990 cell line handling could be reproduced in cardiomyoctes from young hearts after interorganelle disruption with colchicine, at concentrations that had no effect in aged cardiomyocytes or isolated mitochondria. Thus, defective SR-mitochondria communication underlies inefficient interorganelle Ca2+ exchange that contributes to energy demand/supply mistmach and oxidative stress in the aged heart.”
“The dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton and its regulation by Rho GTPases are essential to maintain cell shape, to allow cell motility and are also critical during cell cycle progression and mitosis. Rho GTPases and their effectors are involved in cell rounding at mitosis onset, in chromosomes alignment and are required for contraction of the actomyosin ring that separates daughter cells at the end of mitosis. Recent studies have revealed how a number of nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins regulate the activity of Rho GTPases during these processes.