Neuroprotective Effects of Mitoquinone and Oleandrin on Parkinson’s Disease Model in Zebrafish
İsmail Ünal, Esin Çalışkan-Ak, Ünsal V. Üstündağ, Perihan S. Ateş, Ahmet A. Alturfan, Meric A. Altinoz, Ilhan Elmaci & Ebru Emekli-Alturfan
To cite this article: İsmail Ünal, Esin Çalışkan-Ak, Ünsal V. Üstündağ, Perihan S. Ateş, Ahmet A. Alturfan, Meric A. Altinoz, Ilhan Elmaci & Ebru Emekli-Alturfan (2019): Neuroprotective Effects
of Mitoquinone and Oleandrin on Parkinson’s Disease Model in Zebrafish, International Journal of Neuroscience, DOI: 10.1080/00207454.2019.1698567
To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/00207454.2019.1698567
Accepted author version posted online: 26 Nov 2019.
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Neuroprotective Effects of Mitoquinone and Oleandrin on Parkinson’s Disease
Model in Zebrafish
İsmail Ünal 1, Esin Çalışkan-Ak 2, Ünsal V. Üstündağ 3, Perihan S. Ateş 1, Ahmet A. Alturfan 4, Meric A.Altinoz 5, Ilhan Elmaci 6, Ebru Emekli-Alturfan1*
1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Dentistry Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey
2Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Dentistry, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey
3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul Medipol University, Kavacık, Istanbul, Turkey
4Department of Biochemistry, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey
5Department of Biochemistry, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey 6Department of Neurosurgery, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey Running head: Mitoquinone and Oleandrin in Parkinson’s Disease *Corresponding author: Prof.Ebru Emekli-Alturfan, e-mail: email@example.com
The aim of this study is to investigate the possible protective effects of mitoquinone and oleandrin on rotenone induced Parkinson’s disease in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were exposed to rotenone and mitoquinone for 30 days. Biochemical parameters were determined by spectrophotometric method and Parkinson’s disease-related gene expressions were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Measurement of neurotransmitters was performed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry instrument. The accumulation of synuclein was demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining. In vitro thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide method was applied to determine the mitochondrial function of synaptosomal brain fractions using rotenone as a neurotoxic agent and mitoquinone and oleandrin as neuroprotective agents. Mitoquinone improved the oxidant- antioxidant balance and neurotransmitter levels that were disrupted by rotenone. Mitoquinone also ameliorated the expressions of Parkinson’s disease-related gene expressions that were disrupted by rotenone. According to thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay results, mitoquinone and oleandrin increased mitochondrial function which was decreased due to rotenone exposure. Based on the results of our study, positive effects of mitoquinone were observed in Parkinson’s disease model induced by rotenone in zebrafish.
Key words: Zebrafish, Parkinson’s Disease, Mitoquinone, Oleandrin
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in the world . PD is a progressive condition characterized by motor symptoms such as tremors at rest, slowing movements, stiffness in the face, hands, and legs, and balance disturbances . PD is caused by a decrease in dopaminergic neurons in the compact part of the substantia nigra (SN). Dopamine-producing neurons die in 60-80 % of SN and dopamine amount in putamen is reduced by 80% leading to the typical symptoms of PD [3,4].
Mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, decreased neurotrophic factors, protein accumulation, apoptosis, and dopamine loss have been reported as effective mechanisms in the development of PD . It has been accepted that genetic components also play an important role in the development of PD . PD genetics studies have shown that PD is associated with alpha synuclein mutations, the most important factor in lewy bodies formation, which are cytoplasmic residues in neurons .
In order to prevent mitochondrial damage, antioxidants targeting mitochondria have come to the fore in recent years. Mitoquinone, the most interesting antioxidant for mitochondria, is located in the mitochondria and has been reported to be highly effective in protecting against mitochondrial oxidative damage . In recent years, it has been suggested that oleandrin which is the active ingredient of Nerium oleander has neuroprotective activity [9,10].
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a small tropical freshwater fish with increasing popularity as a model organism in human diseases today . Zebrafish is defined as an ideal vertebrate model that can be monitored embryologically and genetically. It differs from classical vertebrate models due to its high genetic and organ homology with the human, transparent embryo, small size, short development and production time, high number of eggs (over 200 / female / week) production and low maintenance costs . In zebrafish, dopaminergic neurons are first detected in a set of cells in the posterior tubercle of the ventral diencephalon between 18-19 hours after fertilization . Genetic and neurotoxin models have been successfully applied to produce PD in zebrafish .
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mitoquinone on neurotransmitter levels, PD-related genes and synuclein expression, oxidant- antioxidant status and locomotor activity in rotenone-induced PD model in zebrafish. In addition, the effects of oleandrin and mitoquinone were also evaluated on mitochondrial activity in the synaptosomal fractions of rotenone exposed zebrafish brains.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Animals and treatment
Wild-type male and female AB/AB strain zebrafish were maintained in disease-free conditions. Zebrafish were housed in an aquarium rack system (ZebTEC, Tecniplast, Italy) at 27 ± 1 °C under a light/dark cycle of 14/10 h. All experimental procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Marmara University. Zebrafish were randomly divided into four groups; the control group (C) (n=7), rotenone group (R) exposed to 5 μg/L rotenone dissolved in 0.1 % dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (Sigma, USA) (n=7), mitoquinone group (MQ) exposed to 1mg/L mitoquinone dissolved in 0.1 % DMSO (n=7) and rotenone + mitoquinone group (R+MQ) exposed to 5 μg/L rotenone+1mg/L mitoquinone dissolved in 0.1 % DMSO, (n=7) for 4 weeks. C group was exposed to a solution of 0.1 % DMSO. At the end of the experiment after the determination of the locomotor activity fish were anesthetized and brain tissues were taken and used for the analyses.
Locomotor Activity Determination
Fish swim back and forth along the length of the tank as normal behavior. Accordingly, the locomotor activity of adult zebrafish was determined in a 2 L tank in which three vertical lines were drawn on it at equal distances, dividing the tank into four zones (the length of each zone was 6.25 cm). The number of lines that adult zebrafish crossed was measured for 5 min and the total distance that the adult zebrafish traveled was in direct proportion to the total number of lines that the fish crossed .
The levels of dopamine, serotonin, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and noradrenaline in brain tissues were determined by liquid chromatography tandem- mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in homogenates filtered from syringe filter. For this
purpose, brain tissues were homogenized with 0.4 M perchloric acid and homogenates were centrifuged at 13,000 g for 20 min. .
Total protein level was determined by the method of Lowry. Briefly, alkaline proteins are reacted with copper ions and then reduced by Folin reactive. The absorbance of the product was evaluated at 500 nm by a spectrophotometer and calculated to express the results of the parameters per protein .
The method of Yagi was used to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) level, an end product of lipid peroxidation (LPO), as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. LPO was expressed in terms of MDA equivalents as nmol MDA/mg protein .
Nitric oxide (NO) was determined by the method of Miranda which is based on reducing nitrate to nitrite by vanadium (III) chloride. The colored complex was measured at 540 nm by a spectrophotometer and results were expressed as nmol NO/mg protein .
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined by the method based on the ability of SOD to increase the effect of riboflavin-sensitized photo-oxidation of o- dianisidine. At 460 nm absorbances at 0 and 8th minutes of illumination were measured and the net absorbance was calculated. Bovine SOD (Sigma Chemical Co, S2515-3000 U) was prepared as the reference and the results were expressed in U/mg protein .
Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) catalyzes the conjugation of glutathione. The absorbance of the mixture at 25oC is measured by spectrophotometer at 340 nm . Reverse Transcription (cDNA synthesis) and Quantitative Real-Time PCR
RNA was isolated from brain tissues using Rneasy Mini Kit and Qiacube (Qiagen). Single-stranded cDNA was synthesized from 1 μg of total RNA using RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays (Qiagen). PCRs were performed using the DNA Master SYBR Green kit (Qiagen). PCRs were performed using the DNA Master SYBR Green kit (Qiagen). The expression of pink1, dj-1, lrrk2, prkn and bdnf were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR using the Qiagen Rotor Gene-Q Light Cycler instrument. β-actin was used as the housekeeping gene. Relative transcript levels were calculated using the Delta- Delta CT (DDCT) method by normalizing the values to the housekeeping gene . Immunohistochemical Analysis
Brain samples were fixed with 10 % neutral buffered formalin for 24 hours and routinely processed for paraffin embedding. Tissue sections of 3 µm were washed with PBS and nonspecific binding of antibodies was blocked by incubation in a blocking solution. Primary antibody (γ Synuclein, Sigma HPA014404 Anti-SNCG antibody) was incubated for overnight at +40 C. Sections were washed with phosphate-buffered saline, followed by incubation Goat-anti-Rabit horseradish peroxidase-conjugate. The labeling was revealed by incubation with a freshly prepared solution of 3.3′-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) solution. The sections were counterstained with Mayer’s hematoxylin, dehydrated and mounted with entellan. To test the specificity of the staining, the primary antibody was replaced with non-immune serum in negative control sections. Staining sections were examined and photographed with a digital camera (DP72; Olympus) attached to a photomicroscope (BX51; Olympus).
Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) Analysis
The MTT reduction test is an in vitro assay for measuring mitochondrial metabolic function (measuring cell viability). In vitro analysis of MTT using rotenone as a neurotoxic agent was performed in the synaptosomal fractions prepared from the brains of zebrafish. Brain tissues of 50 zebrafish were removed under anesthesia and homogenized in 0.32 M sucrose solution. The pellet formed after various centrifugation steps of the homogenates was suspended with HEPES buffer. The solution containing the synaptosomal fraction was divided into eppendorfs (400 μl). Rotenone (1mM) was added as the neurotoxic agent and the protective effects of oleandrin (10 mg / L and 100 mg / L) and mitoquinone (1 mg / L) were evaluated. The solutions were kept in the dark for 2 hours at 28 oC. MTT dissolved in HEPES was added to each eppendorf at the end of the period and this mixture was kept in darkness for 4 hours at 28oC. DMSO was added to the pellets and the absorbance of the purple colored liquid was measured spectrophotometrically at 570 nm. The results were evaluated proportionally as 100% viability of the control [23,24].
Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.0 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, USA). All data were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. Kruskal Wallis test was used for the comparison of groups of data followed by Dunn’s multiple comparison tests. Value of P less than 0.05 was regarded as significant.
Results of Locomotor Activity
The locomotor activity of R, MQ and R + MQ groups significantly decreased compared to the C group (p <0.05). In addition, the locomotor activity of the R + MQ group decreased significantly compared to the MQ group (p <0.05) (Figure 1).
Results of Neurotransmitters Analysis
There was a significant decrease in R group dopamine level compared to group C (p
<0.05). In the R + MQ group, the dopamine level significantly increased compared to the R group (p <0.05). DOPAC level of R group significantly increased compared to C group (p <0.05). There was a significant decrease in DOPAC level compared to the R group in the MQ and R + MQ groups (p <0.05).It was determined that R group had a significant decrease in serotonin levels compared to group C (p <0.05). Noradrenaline levels were not significantly different between the groups (p >0.05) (Figure 2).
Results of Biochemical Analysis
LPO levels significantly increased in R group when compared with the C group (p
<0.05) (7.93 ± 0.61 nmol MDA/mg P; 3.61 ± 0.39 nmol MDA/mg P respectively). In the MQ group, LPO levels significantly decreased compared to both R and C groups (p <0.05) (1.89 ± 0.53 nmol MDA/mg P; 7.93 ± 0.61 nmol MDA/mg P; 3.61 ± 0.39 nmol MDA/mg P respectively). LPO levels significantly decreased in R + MQ group compared to R group (p <0.05) (3.87 ± 0.28 nmol MDA/mg P; 7.93 ± 0.61 nmol MDA/mg P respectively) .
There was a significant decrease in the SOD activity of the R and MQ groups compared to the C group (p <0.05) (2.02 ± 0.25 U/min mg P; 2.05± 0.29 U/min mg P; 2.77±0.18 U/min mg P respectively). SOD activity in R + MQ group significantly increased compared to both R and MQ groups (p <0.05) (2.76 U/min mg P; 2.02 ± 0.25 U/min mg P; 2.05± 0.29 U/min mg P respectively) (Figure 3).
There was a significant decrease in GST activity in R, MQ and R + MQ groups compared to C group (p <0.05) (0.032 ± 0.002 U/min mg P; 0.038± 0.004 U/min mg
P; 0.045± 0.001 U/min mg P and 0.05 ± 0.005 U/min mg P respectively). In the R + MQ group, GST activity significantly increased compared to the R group (p <0.05). NO levels increased significantly in the R group compared to the C group and decreased in the MQ group (p <0.05) (3.12 ± 0.10 μmol/g P; 2.6 ± 0.12 μmol/g P; 1.7±0.19 μmol/g P). NO levels significantly decreased in MQ and R + MQ groups compared to R group (p <0.05) (1.7±0.19 μmol/g P; 2.82±0.2 μmol/g P; 3.12±0.1 μmol/g P respectively). In the R + MQ group, the NO levels significantly increased compared to the MQ group (p <0.05) (Figure 3).
Results of Quantitative Real-Time PCR
When compared with the C group, there was a significant decrease in the expression of prkn in the R group (p <0.05). In the MQ group, prkn expressions significantly increased compared to both C and R groups (p <0.05). In the R + MQ group, the expression level of prkn significantly increased compared to the R and C group but significantly decreased compared to the MQ group (p <0.05).
pink1 expression significantly decreased in group R compared to group C (p <0.05). pink1 expression significantly increased in both MQ and R + MQ groups compared to both group C and R groups (p <0.05).
In group R, the expression dj-1 significantly increased compared to C group (p
<0.05). In both MQ and R + MQ groups, dj-1 expression significantly decreased compared to both C and R groups (p <0.05).
In the R group, the expression lrrk2 significantly increased compared to the C group (p <0.05). The levels of lrrk2 expression significantly decreased in both MQ and R + MQ groups compared to both the C group and the C group (p <0.05).
There was a significant decrease in bdnf expression in group R compared to group C (p <0.05). bdnf expression significantly increased in the MQ group compared to both the C and the R groups (p <0.05). The expression bdnf significantly decreased in the R + MQ group compared to the C and MQ groups and increased significantly compared to the R group (p <0.05) (Figure 4).
Results of Immunohistochemical Analysis
Immunohistochemical staining of rhombencephalon samples in the control and MQ group showed moderate immunopositive staining in nerve cell bodies and processes. In R group, strong γ Synuclein immunopositive staining was observed in nerve cell bodies and processes while the intensity of γ Synuclein immunopositive staining decreased in R+MQ group (Figure 5).
Results of MTT Analysis
MTT analysis results of C, MQ, R, Oleandrin 10 mg / L (OL10), Oleandrin 100 mg /
L (OL100), Rotenone - Oleandrin 10 mg / L (R + OL10), Rotenone - Oleandrin 100 mg / L (R + OL100) and R + MQ groups are shown in Figure 6. Formazon formation showing mitochondrial activity significantly decreased in R, R + OL10, R + OL100 and R + MQ groups compared to C group (p <0.05). Mitochondrial activity significantly increased in the OL100 group compared to the C group (p <0.05). There was a significant increase in the formation of formazan in R + OL100 and R + MQ groups compared to the R group (p <0.05). There was a significant decrease in the formation of formazan in R, R + OL10, R + OL100 and R + MQ groups when compared with the MQ group (p <0.05). On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in mitochondrial activity in R + OL10, R + OL100 groups compared to OL10 group (p <0.05) (Figure 6).
In our study, amendatory effects of mitoquinone against rotenone induced PD symptoms were observed. Mitoquinone positively affected the impaired oxidant- antioxidant balance, altered PD-related gene and synuclein expressions.
At the end of 4-weeks of rotenone application, locomotor activity, dopamine, and serotonin levels significantly decreased whereas DOPAC and DOPAC / dopamine levels significantly increased in rotenone exposed zebrafish when compared to the control group. Noradrenaline levels were not significantly different. The expression of synuclein in the brain increased as observed by immunohistochemical staining. In addition, increased LPO and decreased antioxidant levels in the brain tissue showed deteriorated oxidant-antioxidant balance.
Rotenone is a pesticide that can cross the blood brain barrier unlike many other toxic agents due to its lipophilic nature. When it enters the cell, it accumulates in organelles including mitochondria. In the mitochondria, it binds to complex 1 and disrupts mitochondrial respiration, and it causes oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production [14,16]. Rotenone is commonly used to produce PD-like symptoms in rodents, but there is a limited number of studies investigating rotenone application as a PD model in zebrafish. Wang et al.  reported that 4-week rotenone administration caused motor and non-motor PD-like symptoms in adult zebrafish. Rotenone-treated zebrafish showed a decrease in swimming speed as a
sign of impairment in motor function. In the light-dark box test, rotenone-treated zebrafish spent more time in the bright compartment reflecting anxiety and depression-like behavior. In addition, rotenone-treated fish showed olfactory dysfunction. These symptoms are related to the reduction of dopamine levels in zebrafish brain. In another study, Khotimah et al.  exposed adult zebrafish to 5 μg
/ L rotenone for 28 days and reported significantly decreased motility and dopamine content in the brain. In our study, similar to these studies 5 μg / L rotenone administration for 4 weeks caused PD-like symptoms in zebrafish. Although rotenone administration decreased dopamine, serotonin levels and increased DOPAC, and DOPAC / Dopamine levels, noradrenaline levels did not change. Previous studies with rotenone-induced PD did not show a relationship between depression-like behaviors and noradrenaline levels . It was reported that anxiety and depression- like behaviors in PD were associated with dopamine and not related to noradrenalin or serotonin .
The number of studies investigating the effects of mitoquinone in neurodegenerative diseases such as PD is quite limited. In some of these studies, the positive effects of mitoquinone in PD have been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. Mitoquinone inhibited mitochondrial fragmentation by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) when administered to SH-SY5Y cells . In another study, the neuroprotective effect of mitoquinone was demonstrated in both cell culture and PD animal model. Mitoquinone has been shown to inhibit the loss of dopaminergic neurons induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and to correct behavioral activities .
In our study, the administration of mitoquinone positively affected the neurotransmitter levels which were impaired by rotenone administration. Mitoquinone significantly increased dopamine levels and decreased DOPAC and DOPAC /
Dopamine levels in the rotenone treated group. It can be argued that these findings may be due to the effect of mitoquinone as a mitochondrial targeted antioxidant, reducing the oxidative damage and preventing the loss of dopaminergic neurons.
Our study showed alterations in the expressions of PD-related genes in rotenone exposed zebrafish. Rotenone significantly increased the expression of dj-1. It has been reported that DJ-1 acts as an oxidative stress sensor and has a neuroprotective role and increased expression of DJ-1 has been reported in stress conditions such as oxidative stress [29, 30]. Mitoquinone administration significantly decreased dj-1
expression in the rotenone exposed group. This finding may suggest that by
decreasing oxidative stress mitoquinone also decreased dj-1 expression which was
increased in response to neurotoxic agent rotenone.
In our study, rotenone exposure was found to increase the expression of lrrk2 in zebrafish. Our findings are consistent with the results of rotenone and MPTP induced PD models in zebrafish [16,31]. Mitoquinone significantly decreased lrrk2 gene expression in the rotenone exposed group. Rotenone exposure resulted in significant reductions in pink1, park2 and bdnf expression levels. On the other hand, mitoquinone led to a significant increase in pink1 expression in the rotenone exposed group. This shows that the high antioxidant capacity of mitochondria would positively affect the pink1 and prkn activities. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for the survival and morphology of dopaminergic neurons and loss of BDNF contributes to the death of these cells in PD . In our study, bdnf expression significantly increased with the application of mitoquinone which was decreased in rotenone exposed zebrafish,
Synucleins are small proteins of 100-140 amino acids expressed in neuronal presynaptic terminals. The three members of the synuclein family, alpha, beta and gamma synuclein, are encoded by separate genes and are highly conserved throughout the vertebrates. In zebrafish, three genes, sncb, sncg1 and sncg2 (encode beta, gamma1 and gamma2 synuclein), and these genes show wide phylogenetic protection with human paralogs. Synucleins in zebrafish show intense sequence similarity with human synucleins . In our study, the immunohistochemical expression of gamma synucleins increased compared to the control group in the sections of the brain tissues of zebrafish exposed to rotenone. Mitoquinone administration decreased synuclein accumulation in the rotenone group. This condition supports the importance of increased oxidative stress in the accumulation of synuclein and the potential of the mitoquinone as an antioxidant protector.
In our study, LPO significantly increased in the brain tissues of rotenone exposed zebrafish as a sign of increased oxidative stress, while the antioxidant enzymes SOD and GST activities significantly decreased. Impaired oxidant-antioxidant balance caused by rotenone is parallel to the changes in expressions of genes encoding PD- associated mitochondrial proteins. In rotenone exposed group, increased expression of prkn and pink1 together with decreased dj-1 expression is closely related to impaired oxidant-antioxidant balance. On the other hand, Mitoquinone corrected oxidant-
antioxidant balance as a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant. There was a significant increase in the SOD level of R+MQ group when compared with the MQ group. This increase may be attributed to the antioxidant effect of mitoquinone and to the defense mechanism of the organism against increased LPO. NO levels also increased significantly in the rotenone exposed zebrafish compared to the control group, on the other hand, mitoquinone decreased NO levels. As a signaling molecule, NO plays an important role in a variety of signal transduction pathways that are very important for maintaining the physiological functions of the vascular, respiratory, immune, muscle and nervous systems. NO and its derivatives play a role in pathogenic processes of neurodegenerative disorders .
When in vitro-MTT analysis was performed using synaptosomal fractions prepared from zebrafish brains using rotenone as a neurotoxic agent, mitochondrial activity significantly decreased. Rotenone is a specific inhibitor of MCI, also known as NADH: ubiquitin oxidoreductase, causing depolarization of microtubules, leading to damage to transport vesicles . In vitro MTT analysis was reported to be appropriate to determine the neuroprotective effects of various drugs in brain synaptosomal fractions of zebrafish and the results were found to be consistent with the results obtained from rats .
In the MTT experiment, when mitoquinone and oleandrin were administered as neuroprotective agents against rotenone toxicity, both agents increased mitochondrial activity. Oleandrin is a cardiac glycoside that binds and inhibits Na + / K + -ATPase. Recently, new roles of cardiac glycosides in the regulation of various cellular processes have been demonstrated. Leaves and flowers have been reported to be cardiotonic, diuretic, anticancer, antibacterial, anti-fungal and expectorant . In recent years, Nerium oleander has been reported to have neuroprotective activity as the herbal anticancer candidate “PBI-05204” due to its oleandrin content . The neuroprotective effect of oleandrin content of PBI-05204 has been suggested to be due to its neural BDNF expression enhancing effect .
In conclusion, our study showed that rotenone exposed zebrafish is suitable for generating PD model through PD related genes, synuclein accumulation, oxidant- antioxidant mechanisms and locomotor activity. In addition, the effects of mitochondria targeted antioxidant, mitoquinone was investigated for the first time in PD model and positive effects were demonstrated. Finally, the neuroprotective effect
of a heart glycoside, oleandrin has been shown for the first time in the literature in the case of rotenone toxicity in synaptosomal fractions prepared from the brains of zebrafish. Reducing oxidative stress may provide a therapeutic strategy for PD, but further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved. We believe our study will contribute to current data and therapeutic approaches related to PD. Conflicts of interest: The authors report no conflicts of interest.
Source of funding: This study was supported by Marmara University Scientific Research Projects Commission, Project No: SAG-C-YLP-120917-0506.
This study was supported by Marmara University Scientific Research and Project Commision, Project No: SAG-C-YLP-120917-0506
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Figure 1: Locomotor activities of the groups. a p<0.05 Significantly different from the C group c p<0.05 Significantly different from the MQ group
Figure 2: A- Dopamine levels (ng/ml) of the groups; B-DOPAC levels (ng/ml) of the groups; C-Serotonin levels (ng/ml) of the groups; D-Noradrenalin levels (ng/ml) of the groups. E-DOPAC/Dopamine levels of the groups. a p<0.05 Significantly different from the C group; b p<0.05 Significantly different from the R group c p<0.05 Significantly different from the MQ group.
Figure 3: A- Lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels (nmol MDA/mg P) of the groups; B- Nitric oxide (NO) levels (μmol/g P) of the groups; C-Glutathione-S- transferase (GST) activities (U/min mg P) of the groups; D-Superoxide dismutase activities (U/min mg P) of the groups a p<0.05 Significantly different from the C group; b
the MQ group.
p<0.05 Significantly different from the R group c p<0.05 Significantly different from
Figure 4: RT-PCR results. Bar graph presentation of the fold change of prkn, pink1, lrrk2 and bdnf transcripts quantified by RT-PCR. All RT-PCR results are normalized to β-actin, the house keeping gene and expressed as change from their respective controls. The average values were obtained from three experiments. Data presented are mean ± SD. Significant difference is indicated by an asterisk, a p<0.05 Significantly different from the C group; b p<0.05 Significantly different from the R group c p<0.05 Significantly different from the MQ group. P-value <0.05 was considered as significant.
Figure 5: Representative light micrographs of rhombencephalon in C (A), MQ (B), R (C) and MQ+R (D) groups using γ Synuclein immunohistochemical staining. Moderate γ Synuclein immunopositive staining (arrows) was detected in the nerve cell bodies and processes (A, B and D). Strong γ Synuclein immunopositive staining (arrows) was observed in the nerve cell bodies and processes (C). Scale bar: 60 μM.
Figure 6: Results of mitochondrial function as formazon formation (MTT determination) in synaptosomal fractions of zebrafish brains. The results were calculated by proportioning the percentage of Control values as 100 %. The data are given as mean ± SD. Significant difference is indicated by the letters a, b, c and d. (n = 50); K: Control; R: Rotenone (5 μg / L); MQ: Mitoquinone (1 mg / L); OL10: Oleandrin 10 mg / L; OL100: Oleandrin 100 mg / L; R + OL10: Rotenone + Oleandrin 10 mg / L; R + OL100: Rotenone + Oleandrin 100 mg / L; R + MQ: Rotenone + Mitoquinon; a p <0.05 significantly different from the C group; b p <0.05 significantly different from the R group; c p <0.05 significantly different from the MQ group; d p <0.05 significantly different from the OL10 group.