(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3552914]“
“Mefloquine is an effective and
widely used anti-malarial drug; however, some clinical reports suggest that it can cause dizziness, balance, and vestibular disturbances. To determine if mefloquine might be toxic to the vestibular system, we applied mefloquine to organotypic cultures of the macula of the utricle from postnatal day 3 rats. The macula of the utricle was micro-dissected out as a flat surface preparation and cultured with 10, 50, 100, or 200 mu M mefloquine for 24 h. Specimens were stained with TRITC-conjugated phalloidin to label the actin in hair cell stereocilia and TO-PRO-3 to visualize this website cell nuclei. Some utricles were also labeled with fluorogenic caspase-3, -8, or -9 indicators to evaluate the mechanism of programmed cell death. Mefloquine treatment caused a dose-dependent loss of utricular hair cells. Treatment with 10 mu M caused a slight reduction, 50 mu M caused a significant reduction, and 200 mu M destroyed nearly all the hair cells. Hair cell nuclei in mefloquine-treated utricles were condensed and fragmented, morphological features of apoptosis. GW3965 cost Mefloquine-treated utricles were positive for the extrinsic initiator caspase-8 and intrinsic initiator caspase-9 and downstream executioner caspase-3.
These results indicate that mefloquine can induce significant hair cell degeneration click here in the postnatal rat utricle and that mefloquine-induced hair cell death is initiated by both caspase-8 and caspase-9.”
“The choice of appropriate therapeutic plans for primary endocervical adenocarcinomas (ECA) and endometrial adenocarcinomas (EMA) depend on the tumor’s site of origin. The purpose of this study was to compare the performances of the commonly used three-marker (ER/Vim/CEA), four-marker (ER/Vim/CEA/PR) and five-marker (ER/Vim/CEA/PR/p16(INK4a)) panels in distinguishing
between primary ECA and EMA.
A tissue microarray was constructed using paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissues from 35 hysterectomy specimens, including 14 ECA and 21 EMA. Utilizing the avidin-biotin (ABC) technique, tissue array sections were immunostained with five commercially available antibodies (ER, Vim, CEA, PR and p16(INK4a)) to evaluate the performances of their respective three-, four- and five-marker panels in distinguishing between primary ECA and EMA.
ER, PR and Vim were more likely to be expressed in EMA, while CEA and p16(INK4a) were frequently expressed in ECA. The three-marker (ER/Vim/CEA) panel exhibits the most favorable performance in the distinction between these two gynecologic malignancies (ECA vs. EMA).