Many key research questions remain unanswered. Though treatment of HCV in HIV-infected patients presently appears feasible, phase III studies still
lag behind developments in monoinfected populations. Testing of easier, shorter therapies is critical, and rapid performance and dissemination of DDI data must occur on a more rapid timeline. The importance of understanding DDIs has taken on new prominence with the recent observations that studies in healthy controls may not always mirror treatment outcomes in HIV-infected patients. Improved Decitabine understanding of how HIV treatment affects liver disease through modulation of immune activation and immune reconstitution and immunoregulation remains highly topical. The emergence of acute HCV in IDUs and among MSM requires careful evaluation in terms of the development of new public health prevention measures, as well as the update of paradigms for treatment intervention and prevention of reinfection. Management strategies for hepatitis B seem clear, but the importance of both occult HBV and hepatitis D remain less certain.
Emerging data points to issues of long-term toxicity with historical antiretroviral agents (ddl), and perhaps issues associated with long-term use of other classes that may contribute to OS. Health resource utilization research will be critical BGB324 manufacturer in the next few years. It is not enough to have new medications for HCV. We have to be able to identify those with coinfections, incorporate them into a health care system that can recognize and manage liver disease, and effectively treat curable etiologies of liver injury. For those with advanced medchemexpress liver fibrosis, recognition and management of PH and its complications as well as HCC surveillance are important, but unfulfilled, requirements for this population. LT for those with HIV is feasible, but outcomes are not optimal and research that permits better patient selection and pre- and post-transplant management is needed. Access to centers that
can and will transplant those with HIV is essential, and organ availability remains an issue for all patients with ESLD. Meeting participants (speakers whose lectures contributed to the content of this meeting summary) were as follows: Susan W. Brobst, Ph.D., National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; John T. Brooks, M.D., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA; Brian Conway, M.D., F.R.C.P.C., Vancouver ID Center, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Douglas Dieterich, M.D., Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY; Robert Fontana, M.D., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; Zachary Goodman, M.D., Ph.D., Inova Pathology Institute, Falls Church, VA; Shyam Kottilil, M.D., Ph.D., NIAID/NIH, Bethesda, MD; Henry Masur, M.D., NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD; Elinore McCance-Katz, M.D., Ph.D., University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Barbara McGovern, M.D.