Streptomycin sulfate, neomycin sulfate and other reagents of analytic grade were from Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library concentration Sigma-Aldrich. IQ™ SYBR® Green Supermix for real-time PCR reactions was acquired from Bio-Rad Laboratories. The phytopathogenic Fusarium strains used –F. graminearum 3-ADON (Fgra3) SMCD 2243, and 15-ADON (Fgra15) SMCD 2244 chemotypes, F. avenaceum (Fave) SMCD 2241, F. oxysporum (Foxy) SMCD 2242, F. proliferatum (Fpro) SMCD 2244, F. sporotrichioides (Fspo) SMCD 224; and one mycoparasitic S. mycoparasitica SMCD 2220 strain – were retrieved from Saskatchewan
Collection and Database (SMCD), maintained on PDA amended with antibiotics (100 mg L−1 streptomycin sulfate and 12 mg L−1 neomycin sulfate) and used throughout this study. Ascospores of S. mycoparasitica
were produced on modified Leonian’s agar, harvested and prepared as outlined in Goh & Vujanovic (2010). In addition, Fusarium spp. filtrates were prepared, S. mycoparasitica spore germination assays in six different Fusarium filtrates were carried out, and spore germination was observed, counted and recorded as proposed in Goh & Vujanovic (2010). Dual-culture assays to examine the degree of hyphal reduction/inhibition Trametinib cell line or damage to F. graminearum chemotypes were assessed according to the procedures outlined in Goh & Vujanovic (2009). Compared with F. graminearum 3 and 15 chemotypes, S. mycoparasitica is slow-growing fungus. Therefore, S. mycoparasitica was preinoculated onto the PDA plates for 1 day, at 21 °C in darkness, before inoculating Fusarium mycelial plug as described in Goh & Vujanovic (2010). The linear mycelial growth
of Fusarium strains for both treatments indicated above was measured and recorded daily for 5 days. Sampling zones of 0.5 × 1.5 cm2 located approximately 0.2 cm behind the contact zone (Iakovlev et al., 2004) between F. graminearum and S. mycoparasitica were excised and subjected to DNA extraction. Each treatment was replicated three times, and the experiment was repeated twice. The PDA plate inoculated with F. graminearum only was the positive control. 5-FU manufacturer Total genomic DNA was extracted using DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen Inc.). The DNA was eluted once in 50 μL buffer AE and stored at −20 °C until real-time PCR quantification assays (as described below). Contact biotrophic mycoparasitic interactions between S. mycoparasitica and both F. graminearum chemotype strains, and intracellular parasitism interactions were examined and assessed on slide cultures according the methods described in Goh & Vujanovic (2009). Fusarium graminearum-specific (Fg16NF/R) (Nicholson et al., 1998) and trichothecene Tri5 gene-specific (Tox5-1/2) (Niessen & Vogel, 1998) primer sets were used in this study. Standard curves for F. graminearum- and Tri5 gene-primer sets were generated, based on threshold cycles (Ct), using a series of 10-fold diluted genomic DNAs from F. graminearum (from 2.7 × 102 to 2.7 × 10−2 ng μL−1 of F. graminearum-specific primer set, from 2.7 × 102 to 2.