Electronic images were auto-leveled and relevant lanes were place

Electronic images were auto-leveled and relevant lanes were placed side-by-side using Adobe Photoshop CS3. Micro-array analysis assisted transcript mapping To complement the RT-PCR and Northern analyses, we hybridized Cy3-labeled cDNA synthesized from total RNA isolated from P. knackmussii B13 cultures during exponential growth on 3-chlorobenzoate and during the following stationary phase, to custom-designed semi-tiling microarrays for ICEclc. The semi-tiling array contained a 50-mer probe at approximately every 200 bases over the whole length of ICEclc and for both strands, each in sixfold replicate on the array. We expected that a semi-tiling array format would permit us to map the position of ICEclc transcripts in a complementary

way to the conventional molecular analysis, which would help to reinforce the conclusions drawn on the transcriptional organization of the ICEclc core. Figure 4 shows an overlay LY2835219 in vivo of the core gene organization and RT-PCR plus Northern derived transcriptional organization with the average micro-array hybridization signals per probe on the plus- and the minus-strand of the ICEclc core region, whilst Table 1 summarizes the transcript details across all three methods. Very strikingly, most

of the predicted transcripts follow a clear 5′-3′ decrease in signal intensity, the slopes of which were different for each transcript region (see, for example, the region for the long transcript proposed between position 82,000 and 68,000). We think the 5′-3′ decrease in intensity may partially be caused by the fact that more transcripts are formed near the Evofosfamide datasheet transcription start, which perhaps are incompletely finished, or by preferential 3′-end degradation. This effect has been noted by others using tiling

approaches for transcript determination [28]. Different slopes may be the result of varying mRNA stability and processing speed. Figure 4 Transcriptome of the ICE clc core region. Shown is a compilation of micro-array hybridizations with minus- (top image) and plus-strand located probes (bottom image), both for exponential (yellow Ruxolitinib solubility dmso squares and blue circles) and stationary phase cultures (dark squares and pink circles). Data points are mean hybridization signals (on log2-scale) from six replicate probes per array, averaged over three replicate arrays.). X-axes, position numbering on ICEclc. Middle SB-3CT part, representation of the gene locations in the ICEclc core region (block arrows), and the size and position of the transcripts concluded from RT-PCR and Northerns (Figure 1-3). Table 1 Summary of ICEclc core transcripts. Transcript Stranda Size on Northernb RT-PCRc Promoterd Log2 Stat-Expo Ratioe intB13 + 2.5 + 102,729 (Pcirc) 3.1 ± 1.0 ORF50240 – ND (1.8) ND   1.6 ± 0.6 52324-53196 + 1.5 (1.2) + 51,218 -1.2 ± 0.4 53587-58432 – 4.7 (5.3) + 58,771 4.2 ± 1.4 59110-62755 – 3.5 (4.0) + 63,191 2.6 ± 1.3 63176-66202 – 3.5 (3.4) + 66,976 2.3 ± 1.7 66625-67231 – ND (1.0) + 67,610 5.8 ± 2.2 67800 + 2.

1 per cent whereas some “”anaerobes”" living today are able to to

1 per cent whereas some “”anaerobes”" living today are able to tolerate oxygen even at higher levels. Conclusions The SORGOdb server is the first web server that centralizes and provides an interface for information concerning superoxide reductase Everolimus solubility dmso proteins. SORGOdb provides integrated features: (1) Multiple options for data browsing and searching (2) Complete descriptions Rapamycin supplier of SOR and a new domain-based classification (3) Synthetic and downloadable synopsis for each locus tag (4) A SOR-homology analysis tool using BlastP similarity searches with the SORGOdb-positive dataset (5) An integrated access to external hyperlinks to

various public data sources (notably NCBI GenBank, and Pubmed). SORGOdb is a unique mining tool that can assist researchers with diverse interests to retrieve, visualize and analyse superoxide reductase genes and proteins. Availability and requirements Database name: SORGOdb Project home page: http://​sorgo.​genouest.​org/​index.​php Operating system(s): Platform independent, designed for Safari and Firefox browser and not available for Internet

Explorer. Programming languages: PHP5 (PHP4 compatible), (X)HTML, CSS2, JavaScript, JQuery, MySQL 5. Acknowledgements CLM is supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche and DG by the Ministère de la Recherche. We wish to thank the bioinformatics platform of Biogenouest of Rennes for providing the PLX3397 cost hosting infrastructure. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Distance trees and alignments for each SORGOdb classes and subclasses. The Dx-SOR (Figure A) and Class II-related SOR (Figure B) trees, based on genetic distances, were constructed using ClustalW and UPGMA algorithm. Clade divisions are illustrated by alternatively pink and yellow highlighted area and sequences selected to represent each clade in the alignment are written in red. Multiple sequence alignment were performed using ClustalW and visualized with Jalview [113, 114].

Conserved amino acids are highlighted with different shades of blue considering the degree of identity (most conserved amino acids CYTH4 are coloured in dark blue). These alignments correspond to selected Dx-SOR (Figure C), selected Class II-related SOR (Figure D), all Class III-related SOR (Figure E), all Class IV-related SOR (Figure F), all TAT-SOR (Figure G) and all HTH-Dx-SOR (Figure H). Residues that bind the catalytic center are indicated by a blue asterisk. The amino acid sequences corresponding to SOR which have been biochemically characterized are indicated by a blue arrow. The different SOR domains for each class of SOR, are represented just below multiple sequence alignment. (PDF 6 MB) References 1. Holland HD: The oxygenation of the atmosphere and oceans.

Unni KK: Dahlin’ BONE TUMORS General Aspects

Unni KK: Dahlin’ BONE TUMORS General Aspects find more and Date on 11, 0809 Cases. 5th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1996:143–183. 5. Bacci G, Longhi A, Versari M, Mercuri M, Briccoli A, Picci P: Prognostic factors for osteosarcoma of the extremity

treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: 15-year experience in 789 patients treated at a single institution. Cancer 2006, 106: 1154–1161.CrossRefPubMed 6. Mankin HJ, Hornicek FJ, Rosenberg AE, Harmon DC, Gebhardt MC: Survival data for 648 patients with osteosarcoma treated at one institution. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2004, 429: 286–291.CrossRefPubMed 7. Brinckerhoff CE, Matrisian LM: Matrix metalloproteinases: a tail of a frog that became a prince. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2002, 3: 207–214.CrossRefPubMed 8. Egeblad M, Werb Z: New functions for the matrix metalloproteinases in cancer progression. Nat Rev Cancer 2002, 2: 161–174.CrossRefPubMed 9. Visse R, Nagase H: Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases: structure, function, and biochemistry. Circ Res 2003, 92: 827–839.CrossRefPubMed 10. Ortega N, GSK923295 Behonick D, Stickens D, Werb Z: How proteases regulate bone morphogenesis. Ann NY Acad Sci 2003, 995: 109–116.CrossRefPubMed 11. Chambers AF, Matrisian LM: hanging views of the role of matrix metalloproteinases in metastasis. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997, 89: 1260–1270.CrossRefPubMed 12. Liotta LA, Kohn

EC: The microenvironment of the tumour-host https://www.selleckchem.com/products/c646.html interface. Nature 2001, 411: 375–379.CrossRefPubMed 13. Libra M, Scalisi A, Vella N, Clementi S, Sorio R, Stivala F, Spandidos DA, Mazzarino C: Uterine cervical carcinoma: role of matrix metalloproteinases (review). Int J Oncol 2009, 34: 897–903.PubMed 14. Liotta LA, Tryggvason K, Garbisa S, Hart I, Foltz CM, Shafie S: Metastatic potential correlates with enzymatic degradation of basement membrane collagen. Nature 1980, 284: 67–68.CrossRefPubMed 15. Giannelli G, Falk-Marzillier J, Schiraldi O, Stetler-Stevenson WG, Quaranta V: Induction of cell migration by matrix metalloproteinase- 2 cleavage of laminin-5. Science 1997, 277: 225–228.CrossRefPubMed 16. Turpeenniemi-Hujanen T, Thorgeirsson UP, Hart IR, Grant SS, Liotta LA: Expression of collagenase Bay 11-7085 IV (basement membrane collagenase)

activity in murine tumor cell hybrids that differ in metastatic potential. J Natl Cancer Inst 1985, 75: 99–103.PubMed 17. Stetler-Stevenson WG, Hewitt R, Corcoran M: Matrix metalloproteinases and tumor invasion: from correlation and causality to the clinic. Semin Cancer Biol 1996, 7: 147–154.CrossRefPubMed 18. Arii S, Mise M, Harada T, Furutani M, Ishigami S, Niwano M, Mizumoto M, Fukumoto M, Imamura M: Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 gene in hepatocellular carcinoma with invasive potential. Hepatology 1996, 24: 316–322.CrossRefPubMed 19. Giannelli G, Bergamini C, Marinosci F, Fransvea E, Quaranta M, Lupo L, Schiraldi O, Antonaci S: Clinical role of MMP-2/TIMP-2 imbalance in hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Cancer 2002, 97: 425–431.CrossRefPubMed 20.

5 at the cell centre, X-axis) (C) Data from (B) were compiled in

5 at the cell centre, X-axis). (C) Data from (B) were compiled into single distributions. The percentage of foci in each cell width window is given on the histograms. (D) Examples of simulated distributions. A quarter of a cell section is shown with five

cell slices (X-axis). Yellow areas show areas of permitted localisation of foci for each model. The corresponding distributions of foci in the five cell width slices are shown as histograms with the corresponding percentage of total foci. Figure 3 Distribution of ter locus foci along the cell diameter. (A) Distributions of foci along the cell diameter for the ter locus in the two cell classes. Legend as for Figure 2B. (B) Examples of simulated distributions. Legend as for Figure 2D. Figure 4 Distributions of foci along the cell diameter in Ndd-treated cells. (A) Micrographs of Ndd-treated

cells showing the relocation of chromosomal DNA towards the cell periphery. Dactolisib Legend as for Figure 1B (parS site inserted at the ori locus). (B) Distributions of foci of the indicated loci along the cell diameter. Legend as for Figure 2C. (C) Legend as for Figure 2D. Again, cells were classified into major Y-27632 chemical structure populations depending on the number of foci they contained. For ori, right and NS-right loci, the distributions of foci did not differ significantly between cell populations. Thus, there was no obvious correlation between positioning and cell cycle progression (Figure 2B and data not shown). We therefore combined the datasets of the different classes into a single distribution (Figure 2C). The ori and right loci appeared to be similarly distributed into four axial selleckchem sections, but were less frequently found in the most peripheral section (Figure

2C). Comparison of the observed and expected datasets using the χ2 test showed that the distribution of the ori and right loci was significantly different from all simulated distributions stiripentol except the 90% central model (Figure 2D; χ2 = 2.7 and 2.8, respectively; corresponding to p-values of 0.6). The 90% central model is consistent with the mean position of the nucleoid, which appears as a central DNA mass partly excluded from the extreme periphery of the cell (Figure 1B). The ori and right loci thus appeared randomly positioned across the width of the nucleoid. The NS-right locus clearly tended to localise closer to the cell centre than the ori and right loci without being completely excluded from the cell periphery. However, we failed to find a model that corresponded to this distribution, the best p-value value obtained being 0.003 with the 80% central model (not shown). In the case of the ter locus, only cell populations harbouring one or two foci were statistically relevant. In both populations, a large fraction of foci were located close to either the cell pole or the mid-cell position where the division septum forms (Additional file 1, Figure S1).

We report here the identification of 108 human proteins that inte

We report here the identification of 108 human proteins that interact with flavivirus NS3 or NS5 proteins or both. Based on our Y2H screen results, we created the first flavivirus NS3 and NS5 proteins interaction network composed

of 186 interactions and involving 120 distinct human proteins. Analysis of this virus-host interaction network revealed the topological features of the cellular proteins targeted by the flavivirus NS3 and NS5 proteins and identified functional pathways related to flavivirus biology. Methods Plasmid DNA contructs Coding sequences for NS3 and NS5 Flaviviruses full-length proteins or NS3 helicase, NS3 protease, NS5 A-1210477 molecular weight polymerase and NS5 methyltransferase functional domains were provided in pDONR207 entry vector (Gateway, Invitrogen) by Bruno Coutard (Architecture Captisol in vitro et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR6098, Marseille) and referenced in ViralORFeome database [17]. The viral ORFs were isolated from the following viruses: dengue virus serotype 1 (strain D1/H/IMTSSA/98/606), Alkhurma virus (strain 1176), West Nile virus (Strain paAn001), Japanese Encephalitis

virus (strain Beijing1), Kunjin virus (MRM61C) and Tick borne encephalitis virus (strain 263). Cellular ORF coding for AZI2 was purchased from Invitrogen (clone IOH41551) and coding sequences for AZD4547 NFKBIA, and TRAF4 were obtained from Liothyronine Sodium the Human ORF Collection (OHS4187, Open Biosystems). Viral and cellular coding sequences were subsequently transferred by in vitro recombination from pDONR207 into different Gateway-compatible destination vectors following manufacturer’s recommendation (LR cloning reaction, Invitrogen). To perform yeast-two hybrid experiments, human prey coding sequences were recombined into pACT2 (Invitrogen) to be expressed in fusion downstream of the activation domain of Gal4 (Gal4-AD) and viral bait coding sequences into pGBKT7 to be expressed in fusion downstream of the DNA binding domain of Gal4 (Gal4-BD). In mammalian cells, GST-tag and 3xFLAG-tag fusions were achieved using pDEST27 (Invitrogen), or pCI-neo-3XFLAG (kindly

provided by Y. Jacob Institut Pasteur) vectors, respectively. Yeast two-hybrid assay Viral cDNAs cloned into bait Gal4-BD vector pGBKT7, were transformed into AH109 yeast strain (Clontech) and used to screen by mating human cDNA libraries from liver, brain, spleen and bronchial epithelia cloned in the GAL4-AD pACT2 vectors, and transformed into prey Y187 yeast strains. The mating between baits and prey yeast cells was performed on a selective medium lacking histidine and supplemented with 10 mM 3-amino-triazole (3-AT; Sigma-Aldrich). After 6 days of culture on selective medium, [His+] diploids colonies were isolated and further selected over 3 weeks by culture on selective medium to eliminate false-positives colonies.

In addition, recent evidence suggests that pregnancy is associate

In addition, recent evidence suggests that pregnancy is associated with an immunological shift away from inflammatory processes and inflammatory cytokines and toward a more anti-inflammatory immunologic state [20]. These changes may also play

a role in the maternal response to overwhelming infection and subsequent sepsis [20]. In the 19th century, infection was the most common cause of maternal mortality, accounting for 50% of all maternal deaths [21]. While there has been tremendous progress in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality related to pregnancy-associated infectious complications, the latter remain a major source of pregnancy-related mortality in both developing and developed countries Selleck SGC-CBP30 worldwide, reported to be the third to fourth most GSK2126458 common cause of maternal death [22]. A recent review conducted by the World Health Organization has estimated the global burden of maternal sepsis to be more than 6,900,000 cases per year [22]. Among the more basic ongoing challenges in our understanding the burden of pregnancy-associated sepsis and development of severe sepsis among infected patients, many investigators have noted that clinical reports often employ imprecise and variable terminology (often interchangeably) mafosfamide in use of terms such as this website septicemia, sepsis, septic

shock, puerperal infection, puerperal fever, or maternal sepsis [23–26], thus affecting both clinical practice and present knowledge about maternal sepsis and severe sepsis in the obstetric population. Despite the voluminous body of published research on pregnancy-associated infections and sepsis, our contemporary

understanding about pregnancy-associated severe sepsis (PASS) remains sparse. There are several explanations for this knowledge gap. These include the following limitations of available data: (1) Published reports to date rarely focused explicitly and/or primarily on PASS. (2) When reported, studies often varied in their case definition of severe sepsis, at times at variance with those used in the general population, limiting inference and comparison across studies or with the general population. (3) Varying methodological approaches were used in studies of pregnancy-associated sepsis, further limiting comparisons across studies. (4) Sample size of reported PASS patients has been commonly small and often reflected local rather than population-level data, further limiting inferences from provided data. (5) Reports on PASS focused at times on selected periods of pregnancy (i.e., delivery), affecting inference about the burden of PASS across the full spectrum of pregnancy.

High-levels of 1,6-anhMurNAc-tripeptide accumulate in the absence

High-levels of 1,6-anhMurNAc-tripeptide accumulate in the absence of ampD. AmpD is an amidase that cleaves 1,6-anhMurNAc-tripeptide [13]. Induction of E. cloacae ampC was also shown to be ampG-dependent [14]. β-lactamase fusion analysis suggests HKI-272 cost that E. coli AmpG contains 10 transmembrane segments and two large cytoplasmic loops [15]. E. coli AmpG was shown to transport N-acetylglucosamine-anhydrous

N-acetylmuramic acid (GlcNAc-anhMurNAc) and GlcNAc-anhMurNAc-tri, -tetra, and -pentapeptides [16, 17]. Comprehensive and elegant studies using Enterobacteriaceae established the paradigm of the β-lactamase induction mechanism. Orthologs of ampR, ampD, and ampG are found in numerous Gram-negative species [18]. Whether similar mechanisms are employed in all these organisms has not

been established. It is possible Bromosporine supplier that the induction mechanism could differ. The β-lactamase induction mechanism of P. this website aeruginosa has not been well-defined; however, it is known that P. aeruginosa AmpR regulates expression of ampC as in other organisms [8–10]. Similar to other systems, ampR is located upstream of the ampC gene [10]. Additionally, P. aeruginosa AmpR controls transcription of the oxacillinase, poxB, and several genes involved in virulence [8–10]. Loss of AmpR in P. aeruginosa causes a significant elevation in β-lactamase activity and other virulence factors [10]. P. aeruginosa also differs from other previously studied systems in that its genome has two ampG orthologs, PA4218 and PA4393 [19]. The current study reveals that these two genes, PA4218 and PA4393, are required for β-lactamase induction, hence they have been named ampP IKBKE and ampG, respectively. Consistent with their putative roles as permeases, fusion analysis suggests that AmpG and AmpP have 14 and 10 transmembrane helices, respectively. Expression of ampP is dependent upon AmpR and is autoregulated. Together, these data suggest the distinctiveness of P. aeruginosa β-lactamase induction, as it is the first system that potentially involves two permease paralogs,

and contribute to the general understanding of the induction mechanism. Results Genome Sequence Analysis of the PA4218 and PA4393 Operons E. coli AmpG has been shown to be a permease that transports GlcNAc-anhMurNAc peptides from the periplasm to the cytoplasm [13, 17]; however, the AmpG function in P. aeruginosa has not been described. BLAST analysis of the E. coli AmpG sequence against the six-frame translation of the PAO1 genome identified two open reading frames, PA4218 and PA4393, with significant homology [20, 21]. Global alignment using the Needleman-Wusch algorithm [22] demonstrated that PA4218 is 21.8% identical and 34.8% similar, while PA4393 is 23.2% identical and 34.3% similar to AmpG (Figure 1). The Pseudomonas Genome Database identifies PA4393 as encoding a putative permease with an alternate name of ampG, while PA4218 is identified as encoding a probable transporter [23].

In 1990, an important event took place that many perceived as cru

In 1990, an important event took place that many perceived as crucial for the development of family therapy in Poland. In cooperation

with the IFTA, Polish therapists organized an international conference in Krakow: Family Therapy—The Context We Live in. Many recognized the conference as a significant cultural and scientific event, and approximately 750 family therapists participated. The conference created a unique opportunity for the mutual exchange of experiences and added to the increasing popularity of family therapy and systemic thinking. In the mid-90s, family therapy was spreading rapidly outside academic centers. Those who completed #see more randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# systemic family therapy training courses began to introduce the methods into their own practice, mainly in psychological and psychiatric counseling. At that time, a growing interest in family therapy was observed among professionals and non-professionals. In recent years, narrative ideas, object relation theories, attachment theories and feminist ideas have

been incorporated into family therapy practice (Józefik and de Barbaro 2004; Józefik and Iniewicz 2008; Tryjarska 2010). The constructionist-narrative paradigm is increasingly TSA HDAC molecular weight affecting the thinking of family therapists (Chrzastowski and de Barbaro 2011; Górniak and Józefik 2003). Currently, therapeutic relationships in the process of family therapy and the family therapist as a person are points of special interest. Among systemic family therapists, couples therapy has been increasingly appealing for GABA Receptor several reasons (the transformation of Polish families in response to the pronounced socio-economical-cultural changes in Poland, the changes in the roles and positions of women and men within marriage, and the growing number of divorces) but mostly because

of the belief that couples’ relationships are very important and should be improved and saved if possible. Couples therapy is practiced by psychotherapists of various theoretical orientations (quite often by those who combine psychodynamic and systemic approaches), and based on our knowledge, it is practiced in private outpatient centers more often than family therapy. Treatment centers often advertise that they offer family therapy, which is mostly couples therapy in practice. Family Therapy and Psychiatry When analyzing the historical context of the development of family therapy in Poland, it is worth underlining the close relationship between family therapy, psychiatry, and psychotherapy. The people who introduced and developed family therapy in Poland made significant achievements in both of these fields, and they discovered family therapy as yet another field of interest.

The criteria for LRTI were fever and/or an increased leukocyte co

The criteria for LRTI were fever and/or an increased leukocyte count (≥ 11 × 109 /L), together with increased focal symptoms from the lower airways with at least one of three newly developed symptoms of increased dyspnoea, increased coughing

and/or increased sputum purulence. The enrolled patients underwent standardized fibre-optic bronchoscopy within 24 hours from admission. For the present study, BAL fluid was available in 156 patients, median age 63 years (range 26-90 years). A chronic lung disease was documented in 72 patients (46%), 31% were current and 40% were previous smokers. New X-ray infiltrates were identified in 87 patients (56%). Antibiotics had been taken within 7 days prior to bronchoscopy in 103 cases (66%). As controls, 31 adult patients, median age 64 years (range 30-77 years), who consecutively underwent click here fibre-optic bronchoscopy for suspected malignancy and who did not have pulmonary infection were included. Nineteen of them had

lung malignancies and 12 had no pathology identified by bronchoscopy or radiological examinations. Twenty-seven this website controls (87%) were current or previous smokers. CSF samples sent https://www.selleckchem.com/products/mm-102.html for culture to the Bacteriological Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden during a four year period were used in the study. Specimens were eligible if the total CSF white blood cell (WBC) count was ≥10 × 106 /L indicating meningeal inflammation. Only one CSF sample from each patient was included. Medical records of all patients included in the study were reviewed retrospectively for a final diagnosis, predisposing factors, treatment and outcome by one doctor. All 87 specimens were included in a study previously published for 16 Thiamet G S rRNA gene PCR [24] and the relevance of the PCR findings and bacterial cultures to the final diagnosis was evaluated and compared with the clinical findings and

other laboratory results. The median age of the patients were 34 years (range 1 day- 91 years). Fibre-optic bronchoscope In brief, the fibre-optic bronchoscope was introduced through the nose or through the mouth. The tip of the bronchoscope was wedged into the segment of bronchus affected by a pulmonary infiltrate, or, if no infiltrate was available, into the middle lobe. A sterile, thin tube was then introduced into the working channel of the bronchoscope, and lavage was then performed. One to three portions of 60 mL of isotonic NaCl were used for lavage, and the aspirated fluid was collected in one single portion for microbiological analyses.

J Appl Physiol 2000,89(5):1793–803 PubMed 6

J Appl Physiol 2000,89(5):1793–803.PubMed 6. buy Torin 2 Burgomaster KA, Heigenhauser GJ, Gibala MJ: Effect of short-term sprint interval training on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism during exercise and time-trial performance. J Appl Physiol 2006,100(6):2041–7.CrossRefPubMed 7. Weston AR, Myburgh KH, Lindsay FH, Dennis SC, Noakes TD, Hawley JA: Skeletal muscle buffering capacity and endurance performance after

high-intensity interval training by well-trained cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1997,75(1):7–13.CrossRefPubMed 8. Edge J, Bishop D, Goodman C: The effects of training intensity on muscle buffer capacity in females. Eur J Appl Physiol 2006,96(1):97–105.CrossRefPubMed 9. Laursen PB, Shing CM, Peake JM, ISRIB Coombes JS, Jenkins DG: Influence of high-intensity interval training on adaptations TPX-0005 solubility dmso in well-trained cyclists. J Strength Cond Res 2005,19(3):527–33.PubMed 10. Jenkins DG, Quigley BM: The influence of high-intensity exercise training on the Wlim-Tlim relationship. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993,25(2):275–82.PubMed 11. Helgerud J, Hoydal K, Wang E, Karlsen T, Berg P, Bjerkaas M, Simonsen T, Helgesen C, Hjorth N, Bach R, Hoff J: Aerobic high-intensity intervals

improve VO2max more than moderate training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007,39(4):665–71.CrossRefPubMed 12. Burke J, Thayer R, Belcamino M: Comparison of effects of two interval-training programmes on lactate and ventilatory thresholds. Br J Sports Med 1994,28(1):18–21.CrossRefPubMed 13. Cottrell GT, Coast

JR, Herb RA: Effect of recovery interval on multiple-bout sprint cycling performance after acute creatine supplementation. J Strength Cond Res 2002,16(1):109–16.PubMed 14. Bogdanis GC, Nevill ME, Boobis LH, Lakomy HK, Nevill AM: Recovery of power output and muscle metabolites following 30 s of maximal sprint cycling in man. J Physiol 1995,482(Pt 2):467–80.PubMed 15. Hultman E, Soderlund K, Timmons JA, Cederblad G, Greenhaff PL: Muscle creatine loading in men. J Appl Physiol 1996,81(1):232–7.PubMed 16. Harris RC, Soderlund K, Hultman E: Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clin old Sci (Lond) 1992,83(3):367–74. 17. Stout J, Eckerson J, Ebersole K, Moore G, Perry S, Housh T, Bull A, Cramer J, Batheja A: Effect of creatine loading on neuromuscular fatigue threshold. J Appl Physiol 2000,88(1):109–12.PubMed 18. Volek JS, Kraemer WJ: Creatine Supplementation: Its effect on human muscular performance and body composition. J Strength Cond Res 1996.,10(200–210): 19. Derave W, Eijnde BO, Verbessem P, Ramaekers M, Van Leemputte M, Richter EA, Hespel P: Combined creatine and protein supplementation in conjunction with resistance training promotes muscle GLUT-4 content and glucose tolerance in humans. J Appl Physiol 2003,94(5):1910–6.