In order to evaluate if vaccination changes responses
of the anti-malaria effectors spleen and liver to blood stage malaria, BALB/c mice succumbing to infection with Plasmodium chabaudi were compared to those surviving after vaccination.
Methods: selleck inhibitor Mice were vaccinated with host cell plasma membranes isolated from P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes. Hepatic and splenic capacity to trap particulate material was determined after injection of fluorescent polystyrol beads. Hepatic gene expression was measured using real-time RT-PCR and Northern blotting.
Results: Survival of BALB/c mice was raised from 0% to 80% and peak parasitaemia was decreased by about 30% by vaccination. Vaccination boosted particle trapping capacity of the liver during crisis when splenic trapping selleck products is minimal due to spleen ‘closing’. It also attenuated malaria-induced inflammation, thus diminishing severe damages and hence liver failure. Vaccination increased hepatic IFN-gamma production but mitigated acute phase response. Vaccination has a complex influence on infection-induced changes in expression of hepatic nuclear
receptors (CAR, FXR, RXR, and PXR) and of the metabolic enzymes Sult2a and Cyp7a1. Although vaccination decreased CAR mRNA levels and prevented Cyp7a1 suppression by the CAR ligand 1,2-bis [2-(3,5dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) on day 8 p.i., Sult2a-induction by TCPOBOP was restored.
Conclusion: These data support the view that the liver is an essential effector site for a vaccine against blood stage malaria: vaccination attenuates malaria-induced inflammation thus improving hepatic metabolic activity and particle trapping activity of the liver.”
“The prevalence of coronary pathologic findings in patients with left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction (LVHT)
is unknown. The study in a cohort of consecutive LVHT patients aimed to assess how often coronary angiography (CA) had been performed, if clinical findings and prognosis differed between patients with and without CA, how often pathologic findings of the coronary arteries were found, and if there were differences between LVHT patients with and without coronary pathologic findings.
Between 1995-2007 LVHT was diagnosed in 113 patients (mean age 53 years, 29% females, 67% neuromuscular disorders). CA Selleck JQ1 had been performed in 52. Patients with CA had more exertional dyspnoea (79 vs. 61%, p < 0.05), angina pectoris (42 vs. 10%, p < 0.001), hypertension (44 vs. 25%, p < 0.05) and larger left ventricles (66 vs. 60 mm, p < 0.001) than patients without. No anomalously originating coronary arteries were found. Patients with coronary arteriosclerosis (n = 8) had more right-bundle-branch block than patients without (25 vs. 0%, p < 0.05). Mortality was 5.8% per year and did neither differ between patients with and without CA nor with and without coronary arteriosclerosis.
Coronary arteriosclerosis is rarely associated with LVHT and does not seem to affect prognosis.