Polyketides are also signal compounds that control the differenti

Polyketides are also signal compounds that control the differentiation of Dictyostelium. The polyketide synthases (PKSs) inhibitor, cerulenin, inhibits Dictyostelium differentiation and therefore its development (Serafimidis & Kay, 2005). The diversity Pembrolizumab mouse of the biological activity of polyketides has rendered these secondary metabolites and the PKS genes that regulate their production the focus of biomedical and biopharmaceutical research. The completion of the Dictyostelium genome project revealed that the Dictyostelium genome contains more than 40 PKS genes, indicating that it has huge potential for polyketide production. In addition, the Dictyostelium genome contained two novel hybrid-type PKS

genes (Eichinger et al., 2005; Zucko et al., 2007). This novel structure was known as ‘Steely’. In Steely PKS proteins, the type III PKS domain was fused to

the C-terminus of a multidomain type I PKS (Eichinger et al., 2005; Austin et al., 2006). The two Steely-type PKSs were called SteelyA and SteelyB. SteelyB was reported to be responsible for the production of the stalk-inducing factor DIF-1 and the knockout mutant of stlB lacked DIF-1 (Austin et al., 2006). This stlB mutant aided the elucidation of the functions of DIF-1 in vivo (Saito et al., 2008). selleck compound However, two different reports associated with SteelyA expression pattern and its products have been identified. According to one report in 2006, an in vitro product was identified as pyrone and the stlA gene was expressed maximally in early development before cell aggregation. Another report in 2008 identified 4-methyl-5-pentylbenzene-1,3-diol (MPBD) as the main in vitro product and the stlA gene was found to be expressed only in late development (Austin et al., 2006; Ghosh et al., 2008). In this study, we re-examined the expression pattern of stlA using two different primer sets and observed that it was similar to that in the dictyExpress database and our previous report (Austin et al., 2006; Rot et al., 2009). Furthermore, we used an stlA mutant and showed that one of the in vivo products of SteelyA was MPBD, a differentiation-inducing factor that was

STK38 identified in the conditioned medium for a dmtA mutant (Saito et al., 2006). Finally, we observed that MPBD induced the formation of mature spore cells in the fruiting body. The Dictyostelium discoideum Ax2 strain was grown in an axenic medium at 22 °C and was harvested at a density of approximately 5 × 106 cells mL−1. A stlA null strain that we reported previously (Austin et al., 2006) was grown in an axenic medium in the presence of 10 μg mL−1 balsticidin S. The axenically grown cells were washed and were developed at 22 °C on the phosphate buffer (2.7 mM Na2HPO4/10.7 mM K2HPO4 pH 6.2) agar plates at a density of 1–2 × 106 cells cm−2. For reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis, developing cells were harvested every 3 h until t21 (late culmination stage) and used for RNA purification.

3% traveling by sea—largely from Egypt and Sudan—into the Saudi s

3% traveling by sea—largely from Egypt and Sudan—into the Saudi seaports of Jeddah and Yanbo. Twenty countries accounted for more than 80% of all international pilgrims worldwide (see Table 1). The largest numbers of international pilgrims performing the Hajj in 2008 originated from the WHO’s Eastern Mediterranean Region (733,417), Selleckchem Navitoclax followed by the South-East Asia Region (463,316), the European Region (243,351), the African Region (217,972), the Western Pacific Region (60,877), and finally the Region of the

Americas (13,311). Of these international pilgrims, 11.3, 64.1, 16.6, and 8.0% originated from low, lower middle, upper middle, and high income countries, respectively. A total of 195,501 pilgrims Nutlin-3 from 40 low-income countries performed the Hajj in 2008, although just 3 of these countries accounted for 57% of such pilgrims—Bangladesh (50,419), Afghanistan (32,621), and Yemen

(28,018). The next 18 low-income countries were the source of between 1,000 and 10,000 pilgrims totaling 79,101 people. These countries included Niger (8,231), Senegal (8,043), Tajikistan (6,883), Mali (6,526), Somalia (6,463), Guinea (5,792), Uzbekistan (5,559), Chad (5,251), Ethiopia (3,926), Benin (3,674), Myanmar (3,342), Mauritania (3,189), Ghana (2,550), Kenya (2,451), Burkina Faso (2,350), Tanzania (1,976), Gambia (1,848), and Togo (1,381). An additional 19 countries were the source of less than 1,000 pilgrims totaling 5,342

people. Furthermore, 10 lower middle- income countries sent more than 25,000 pilgrims each to the Hajj, which included Indonesia (214,159), India (173,265), Pakistan (170,573), Iran (111,511), Nigeria (97,396), Egypt (94,015), Morocco (48,483), Sudan (38,652), Iraq (35,326), and Syria (30,556). A scatterplot of the number of pilgrims performing selleck the Hajj by country and the economic status of the country (see Figure 1) measured as GNI per capita depicts which countries may be most vulnerable to H1N1 after the Hajj (ie, those with the highest number of pilgrims and the lowest financial resources). Our analysis of international passenger traffic at Jeddah IAP revealed three annual surges in travel associated with: (1) a summer tourism festival located in Jeddah; (2) the month of Ramadan when many Muslims travel to Mecca to take part in a lesser pilgrimage known as the Umrah; and (3) the Hajj. At the time of the Hajj, approximately three million international passenger trips are regularly made via Jeddah or Medina IAP—the two main commercial airports used by pilgrims traveling to and from Mecca (see Figure 2; data from Medina IAP not shown). With the notable exception of Indonesia, we found that a substantial majority of the world’s pilgrims originated from the Northern hemisphere in 2008, which was in the midst of influenza season when the Hajj began in late November.

univariate patterns within each cluster Additionally, we perform

univariate patterns within each cluster. Additionally, we performed multivariate decoding on each individual cluster found in the GLM to examine if decoding of the attended object category is based on either localized or distributed patterns of cortical learn more activation patterns. In cluster-wise decoding (MVA-C), time-series of all voxels in a cluster were averaged

and then used for training and decoding. This analysis was repeated for each cluster found in each subject. Hence, a separate decoder was trained and tested for every cluster. Furthermore, we also computed the anatomical label of voxels used by the decoders by grouping and labeling them using a subject-specific automatic anatomic labeling mask (Tzourio-Mazoyer et al., 2002). We refer to these groups of classifier voxels with the same anatomical labels as regions. A region

may contain one or more voxels that may or may not be spatially adjacent, but crucially each voxel in a region has the same anatomical label. The same procedure was then repeated for all subjects. Any region not activated www.selleckchem.com/products/Rapamycin.html in at least three subjects was dropped from further analysis. We then calculated average percent signal change for attend-face and attend-place trials in voxels in each of these groups. Finally, to examine how the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal evolved during an attention trial in MVA-W, we calculated percent signal change as a function of TR in face- and place-selective voxels for attend-face and attend-place trials. Face-selective voxels were defined as those voxels that were assigned positive weights by the classifier, whereas place-selective voxels were assigned negative weights. Decoding performance was quantified in terms of accuracy, defined as the percentage

of successfully predicted trials. A trial was regarded successful if the summed log probability for the target picture () exceeded the summed log probability of the non-target picture () for all 12 scans in a trial. Additionally, decoding accuracy was also calculated as a function of time (TR) within each trial to investigate how it evolved over the course of the trial duration. PAK5 Decoding accuracy at a given TR was defined as the percentage of successfully decoded scans at that TR across the group. Furthermore, because the non-feedback condition contained attend-face and attend-place trials, performance for each of these trial types was calculated separately as well. A behavioral test was conducted post hoc to assess the familiarity asymmetry of face and place pictures used in this study. In this web-based test, participants had to rank the familiarity of a picture on a five-point scale. In this way, all 589 pictures used in the study were ranked. In total, 97 participants (25 female) with an average age of 29.6 years (SD = 7.1) took part in this task. Thirty-two participants completed the test, while the remaining participants dropped out after ranking 96 pictures on average.

, 2006) Next, the β-Gal activities from WK074 cells expressing e

, 2006). Next, the β-Gal activities from WK074 cells expressing either

wild-type His-Irr or mutant His-Irr proteins were compared. The β-Gal activities obtained were normalized to those from WK074 harbouring the pBBR vector (100% β-Gal activity, find more no repression of mbfA-lacZ) (Fig. 2a). WK074 cells expressing wild-type His-Irr (pHIRR) had 1.99% β-Gal activity (Fig. 2a). A single mutation in His-Irr proteins at H38, D86, H92, H93 or D105 could repress mbfA-lacZ as effectively as wild-type His-Irr (1.39, 1.04, 0.97, 1.29 and 0.94% β-Gal activity, respectively) (Fig. 2a). A single mutation at H45, H65 or H127 in the protein caused a slight defect in the ability of the protein to repress mbfA-lacZ compared with wild-type His-Irr, as indicated by the increase selleck monoclonal humanized antibody inhibitor in β-Gal activities (3.83%, 4.77% and 8.96% β-Gal activity, respectively) (Fig. 2a).

The H94 mutation caused the greatest reduction in the repressor function of His-Irr (17.23% β-Gal activity) as compared with the mutations at the other H residues (Fig. 2a). A double mutation at residues H45 and H65 of His-Irr (corresponding to the second haem-binding site of IrrRl) caused a small defect (H45H65, 11% β-Gal activity). Triple mutation in the HHH motif of His-Irr (H92, H93 and H94) caused a large defect in the repressor function of the protein (HHH, 63% β-Gal activity) but did not completely abolish protein function (Fig. 2b). Based on this, it is likely that amino acid residues outside

of the HHH motif also contribute to the repressor function of His-Irr. The plasmids containing the mutated HHH motif in combination with the mutation of other residues, including H38, H45, H65, D86, D105 or H127, were constructed to produce the mutant His-Irr proteins HHH38, HHH45, HHH65, HHH86, HHH105 and HHH127, respectively. Additional mutations at H45, H65 or H127 together with the HHH motif mutation led to the complete loss of His-Irr function (HHH45, HHH65 and HHH127: 103%, 101% and 99% β-Gal activity, check details respectively) (Fig. 2b). Although the mutant His-Irr proteins HHH38 and HHH105 both showed an additive effect compared to HHH, the mutant proteins did not lose function completely (76% and 85% β-Gal activity, respectively) (Fig. 2b). Unexpectedly, an additional mutation at D86 could fully reverse the defect caused by the HHH mutation (HHH86, 0.87% β-Gal activity) (Fig. 2b). The experiments were repeated using the plasmid pIRR to express wild-type IrrAt that encodes the native protein without the 6× His tag. As previously described, the results from the mutagenesis of His-Irr (Fig. 2) showed that H45, H65, D86, H94, the HHH motif and H127 influence the function of Irr.

Survival curves were first assessed in a univariate analysis (Kap

Survival curves were first assessed in a univariate analysis (Kaplan–Meier method), and compared between subgroups (log-rank test). The number of CMV end-organ

disease events being low, a procedure of selection of variables for the multivariate analysis was applied to avoid overfitting: the factors potentially correlated with the survival function [P<0.20 in the log-rank test or the univariate hazard ratio (HR)] were introduced into a multivariate Cox model. Despite this selection, four variables were retained in the model for CMV end-organ disease. We restricted the adjustment factors to age and CD4 cell count (P<0.15 in the univariate analysis). The CD4 count was used as a categorical variable because our Trichostatin A supplier inclusion criterion of CD4 count ≤100 cells/μL yielded a small range of values and the cut-off value of click here 50 cells/μL is clinically meaningful. CMV viraemia was categorized as detectable/not detectable because of a high frequency of undetectable values and the clinical importance of this information. Treatment (HAART vs. non-HAART) was considered a time-dependant variable. The HRs are given with the 95% CIs and Wald’s tests were used to measure significance levels. The assumptions of proportional

hazard were checked. The survival analyses focused on the events occurring in the first year of follow-up because the ROC curve analyses indicated that the prognostic performances were not useful

beyond this time horizon (AUC<0.6). In all cases, P≤0.05 (two-sided) was considered to indicate statistical significance. Statistical analyses were performed using spss 11.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA), stata 10.0 software (STATA Corp., College Station, TX, USA) and s-plus 8.0 (Insightful Corp., Seattle, WA, USA). The prevalence of CMV end-organ disease in the SHCS ranged from 2.6% in 1996 to 1.6% in 2007. The highest incidence rate was 3.9 per 1000 person-years in 1996 and decreased to 0.1 per 1000 person-years in 2007. The most marked drop in the incidence rate occurred between 1996 and 1998, with an estimated reduction of 63% (CI 70–55%) with each successive calendar year (P<0.001). The annual reduction was less pronounced after 1998 (17%), but still remained significant (P<0.001). MAPK inhibitor The observed and predicted annual rates are shown in Figure 1. A total of 1170 patients from the whole SHCS since 1996 met our inclusion criteria. Thirty-nine were excluded from the analysis because they had follow-up of <1 month and three others were excluded because they presented CMV end-organ disease <1 month from the baseline CMV DNA measurement. A total of 1128 patients were included in the analyses. Sixty-seven per cent of the study population were men. The median age at baseline was 38 years (range 18–85 years) and the majority of the patients were white (80%).

In 68 of the 595 stimulation series (eight sites in eight animals

In 68 of the 595 stimulation series (eight sites in eight animals), single-whisker movement was observed at threshold light intensity (Fig. 7D, left) and, in other cases, more than two whisker movements were evoked. Stimulation with a higher light intensity evoked movements of multiple selleck chemicals llc whiskers (Fig. 7D, center and right). Previous electrical microstimulation experiments showed that threshold current intensity and number of deflected whiskers were variable (Brecht et al., 2004). We observed similar results in this ChR2-assisted photostimulation. We stimulated various points in the endoscopic field of view (190 μm diameter). However,

no significant difference was observed in stimulation-evoked whisker movement (data not shown). This result indicates that spatial specificity of stimulation is at least as good as that of electrical microstimulation, and also indicates that the endoscope-based photostimulation can activate minimum unit beta-catenin cancer of motor behavior. In this paper we have described a new optical/electrical probe for controlling neural activity with high spatio-temporal resolution. By using a high-density optical fiber bundle combined with galvano-mirror-based scanning method, we demonstrated that multiple neurons in the endoscopic field of view could be activated independently. In vitro and in vivo experiments suggested that the spatial resolution of photostimulation is comparable to the soma size of cortical neurons in the XY plane (Figs 5 and

S3). In addition to better spatial resolution control of neural activity, another advantage of our method is that the activation of a neuron can be verified in real-time by observing action potential generation using the electrodes bundled with the probe (Figs 4–6). This means that one can stimulate neurons with minimal light intensity for target cell activation. Therefore, the combination of optical stimulation and electrical activity monitoring helps to maximize spatial resolution of stimulation and to prevent undesirable side-effects of stimulation. Several methods

for delivering stimulating light to small brain regions have been reported. A metal-coated, sharpened optical fiber Thiamet G was used for both light stimulation and electrical recording (Zhang et al., 2009). Another type of combined probe is based on a dual-core optical fiber – an optical core for delivering stimulating light and an electrolyte-filled hollow core for electrophysiological recording (LeChasseur et al., 2011). The optical apertures in these probes are so small (1–10 μm) that stimulation area is comparable to neuron diameter (Zhang et al., 2009; LeChasseur et al., 2011). Because these probes have only one stimulation and recording site, multiple probes should be arrayed for multi-site stimulation and recording. However, the density of arrayed probes is in general far lower than inter-neuron distance in brain tissue. For example, electrode pitch of ‘Utah’ multiple electrode array is 400 μm (Zhang et al., 2009).

010) mg/L (P = 0006) The mean cord:maternal ratio was 12 (90%

010) mg/L (P = 0.006). The mean cord:maternal ratio was 1.2 (90% CI 1.0–1.5). The viral load was <400 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL in 24 of 26 women in the third trimester, in 24 of 26 at delivery, and in 15 of 19 postpartum. Within-subject comparisons demonstrated significantly higher CL/F and significantly lower C24 during pregnancy; however, the C24

was well above the inhibitory concentration 50%, or drug concentration that suppresses viral replication by half (IC50) in all subjects. While we found higher emtricitabine CL/F and learn more lower C24 and AUC during pregnancy compared with postpartum, these changes were not sufficiently large to warrant dose adjustment during pregnancy. Umbilical cord blood concentrations were similar to maternal concentrations. HIV-1-infected pregnant women commonly receive antiretroviral drugs. Combination antiretroviral regimens including nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and either a protease inhibitor or a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor are recommended for pregnant women requiring antiretroviral therapy for their own health. In addition, women who do not meet criteria for treatment for their own health generally receive antiretrovirals for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 (HIV) [1]. Physiological changes during pregnancy affect antiretroviral drug disposition and

previous studies of antiretroviral pharmacology during pregnancy have shown reduced Rebamipide antenatal exposure for many antiretrovirals [2]. LDK378 datasheet Inadequate antiretroviral exposure during pregnancy may yield inadequate virological

control, increasing the risk of developing drug resistance mutations and of transmitting HIV to the infant. Understanding placental transfer of antiretrovirals to the foetus is of critical importance, as such transfer may subject the foetus to both the benefit of protection against HIV infection and the risk of potential antiretroviral toxicity [3, 4]. Before any antiretroviral can be used safely and effectively in pregnancy, its pharmacology must be studied in pregnant women [5]. Emtricitabine, an oral, synthetic, cytidine analogue NRTI with potent activity against HIV-1, is frequently used in pregnancy. In nonpregnant adults, emtricitabine is well absorbed and has low protein binding, and the labelled dose of 200 mg once daily results in an average area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) of 10.0 ± 3.1 mg h/L [6]. This average is based on data from both women and men. In these studies, the pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine were similar in adult female and male patients, and the data were not presented separately for women and men. Emtricitabine is primarily eliminated unchanged in the urine, and its clearance is proportional to renal function.

These efforts routinely consisted of microscopic


These efforts routinely consisted of microscopic

observations of diseased coral tissues, all of which revealed the presence of various bacteria and fungi. The photosynthetic and heterotrophic bacteria (such as Phormidium corallyticum) were proposed as potential agents of coral black band disease (Frias-Lopez et al., 2004); and the bacterium Vibrio charcharii was associated with coral white band disease (Richardson et al., 1998). In addition, a few studies found that fungi Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus versicolor were causal agents of the coral aspergillosis (Nagelkerken et al., 1997; Geiser et al., 1998; Fabricius & Alderslade, 2001; Sakayaroj et al., 2006). However, some microbes that had been identified as potential PCI-32765 nmr Acalabrutinib agents of coral diseases have been found in healthy corals (Koh et al., 2000; Toledo-Hernandez et al., 2007), which suggested that these microbes were part of the normal microbial communities. Furthermore, some coral diseases were believed to be caused by microbial communities instead of a single pathogenic microbe

(Zuluaga-Montero et al., 2010). These findings highlight our ignorance of the basic microbial ecology of corals. Most of our limited knowledge of microbes in corals comes from stony and soft corals. From recent studies of coral microbial ecology, it is known that microbes in stony corals are distinct from those in the water column, and there appear to be coral species-specific microbial communities (Rohwer et al., 2001, 2002; Johnston & Rohwer, 2007). Stony

coral-associated microbes clearly represent one of the most complex and important components of the biodiversity of coral communities (Frias-Lopez et al., 2002; Yakimov et al., 2006). Moreover, many studies indicated that microbial communities occupy a range of niches in stony corals, from within the surface mucus layer mafosfamide (Bourne & Munn, 2005; Ritchie, 2006) to on and within the coral tissue layers (Banin et al., 2000; Frias-Lopez et al., 2002). In addition, microorganisms in soft corals might be saprophytic or pathogenic, or may provide other important functions for corals (Santavy & Peters, 1997; Harvell et al., 1999). Microorganisms found in soft corals may help the host by protecting them against pathogens and/or may supply nutrients (Shnit-Orland & Kushmaro, 2009). Although our understanding of the microbial communities and their role in stony and soft corals is evolving, the microbial diversity of black corals (order: Antipatharia) is still poorly understood. This is mainly due to the paucity of field studies that have focused on these black corals, which can be found in all oceans at depths ranging from those of shallow waters to 2000 or more meters (Lapian, 2009).

These data indicate that orexin-A and orexin-B peptides are in a

These data indicate that orexin-A and orexin-B peptides are in a position to play a role in controlling the activity of nigral dopaminergic neurons. However, no loss of orexin-A or orexin-B neurons in the hypothalamus and no loss of orexin fibers in the substantia nigra pars compacta was found in MPTP-treated macaques when compared with control macaques. We

conclude that a relatively selective dopaminergic lesion, such as that performed in MPTP-treated macaques, is not sufficient to induce a loss of hypothalamic orexin neurons. “
“In Arabic, the language used for everyday conversation (‘spoken Arabic’ check details – SA) differs markedly from literary Arabic (LA), which is used for written communication and formal functions. This fact raises questions regarding the cognitive status of the two varieties and their processing in the brain. Previous studies using auditory stimuli suggested that LA is processed by Arabic native speakers as a second language. The current

study examined this issue in the visual modality. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses were collected while Arabic–Hebrew bilinguals performed a semantic categorization task on visually presented words in LA, SA and Hebrew. Performance on LA was better than SA and Hebrew, which did not differ from each other. Activation in SA was stronger than in LA in left inferior frontal, precentral, parietal and occipito-temporal regions, and stronger than in Hebrew in left precentral and parietal regions. Activation in SA was also less lateralized than activation for LA and Hebrew, which did not differ from each other in terms of lateralization, though activation for Hebrew was more selleck products Megestrol Acetate extensive in both hemispheres than activation

for LA. Altogether, these results indicate an advantage for LA in the current study, presumably due to participants’ proficiency in reading in this language. Stronger activation for SA appears to be due to the relative unfamiliarity of written word forms in SA, which could also explain differences in performance between the two languages. However, the stronger activation observed in the left parietal cortex may also reflect stronger associations among words in SA. “
“Vasomotion is important in the study of vascular disorders, including stroke. Spontaneous low and very low hemodynamic oscillations (3–150 mHz) measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) reflect the endothelial (3–20 mHz), neurogenic (20–40 mHz) and myogenic (40–150 mHz) components of vasomotion. We investigated sleep-specific patterns of vasomotion by characterizing hemodynamic oscillations with NIRS in healthy subjects, and tested the feasibility of NIRS as a bedside tool for monitoring vasomotion during whole-night sleep. To characterize local cerebral vasomotion, we compared cerebral NIRS measurements with muscular NIRS measurements and peripheral arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) during different sleep stages in 14 healthy volunteers.

After all, travelers play a central role in the global spread of

After all, travelers play a central role in the global spread of STIs, especially travelers to tropical and subtropical regions with the highest worldwide prevalence of STIs including HIV.[38, 39] Accidents were the only risk perceived higher after travel but significantly lower by travelers than by experts (Figure 3). Injuries, particularly road traffic accidents, are the second most common cause of death abroad

after cardiovascular disease[40-43] and the leading cause of death of those aged 15 to 29 years worldwide.[44] Over 90% of road traffic fatalities occur in low- and middle-income countries,[44] including Selleck Crizotinib many tourist destinations in the tropics and subtropics. Higher mortality rates due to vehicle accidents have been found among travelers than among the local population.[45] Travelers are often not familiar with poor road conditions and different, partly insufficient or insufficiently enforced[44] road traffic laws, and they might engage in high-risk behavior during vacation. Despite their potential

for disability[44] and other complications, little is known about the incidence, type, and severity of nonfatal Small molecule library cost accidents among travelers. Injuries were reported by 6 to 16% of travelers in three different studies,[14, 46, 47] most of them due to road traffic accidents. The most vulnerable groups on the road are pedestrians, (motor) Ureohydrolase cyclists, and users of unsafe or overcrowded public transport.[44] Some studies suggest that (young) men are most likely to be involved in (fatal) vehicle crashes[43, 48] and engage in more

risk-taking activities than women.[14, 49] However, there were no gender- or age-related differences in the perception of accidents in this study (Figure 4). The post-travel increase in perception is most likely due to observed danger abroad. In other studies, accidents were also rated as a more important health problem during or after a stay abroad than before.[10, 50] In order to raise awareness of this potentially life-threatening risk before departure, information about accidents abroad including practical preventive measures needs to be an integral part of pre-travel health advice. PRISM has only been validated for the assessment of the subjective burden of a present illness, not for the perception of health risks in the near future and past. Nevertheless, a fast, nonverbal visual tool[16] may take into account the emotional quality of (risk) perception which is subjective among both travelers and experts. Statistical correlation of the perception of risks with their incidence was not an option as up-to-date, comparable data were not available or collected. However, the experts’ risk assessment, used as a reference point, proved to be consistent with current literature. Generalization of the results is limited owing to the single location of the study.