In order to untangle the interconnection of gene transcription an

In order to untangle the interconnection of gene transcription and gene movement, live cell systems, in which one can follow the activation or silencing of individual endogenous genes with respect to their chromosome

territory or a nuclear compartment, will be required. These types of experiments will be critical to extending our understanding of the role of nuclear organization in the regulation of gene expression. In recent years, light microscopy and electron microscopy approaches, as well as the emergence of genome-wide 3C-related studies have broadened our understanding of the three-dimensional organization of chromatin within the nuclear space, and how it relates to transcriptional regulation. Sotrastaurin However, many fundamental questions Selleck SP600125 remain unanswered. Although increasing evidence from experiments that are close to the native chromatin state do not support the 40 year old concept of higher order chromatin structure, there is still a lack of understanding with regard to the structure of chromatin in

the living cell, and whether or not a 30 nm fiber or even higher order chromatin organization exists in live interphase mammalian cells. Chromatin may have very different structures within a cell depending on multiple factors, such as the radial position within the nucleus, the cell cycle stage, the differentiation state of the cell, transcriptional activity, nucleosome Progesterone occupancy, DNA and histone modifications, histone variants, long-range chromatin interactions, or any combination of these factors. Although 3C-related techniques

have provided significant insight into genome-wide chromatin association frequencies within a population of cells, these techniques currently do not tell us how dynamic such interactions are in and among single cells. It remains to be determined what the frequency and duration of these interactions are, how they relate to the cell cycle and differentiation, and if they are the cause or consequence of transcriptional regulation. While recent advances in imaging and molecular approaches have provided significant insights into chromatin organization and gene interactions, ongoing studies examining individual living and fixed cells will provide the basis for further advances. Papers of particular interest, published within the period of review, have been highlighted as: • of special interest We thank the members of the Spector lab for helpful discussions, Megan Bodnar and Cinthya Zepeda-Mendoza for critically reading the manuscript and James Duffy for help with preparing the figures. Research in the Spector lab is supported by grants from NIGMS42694, NCI5P01CA013106-40, and NCI 2P30CA45508-24.

Bowhead whales respond to anthropogenic sound in their environmen

Bowhead whales respond to anthropogenic sound in their environment [31], [32] and [33] and concern that bowheads will avoid areas with industrial noise has been the subject of ongoing regulatory discussions of oil and gas operations in the Arctic [34]. In Canada, researchers observed belugas avoiding ice-breaking vessels at great distances and altering their behavior for days following the event [35]. Potential effects of increased sound

from shipping on fish and invertebrates are difficult to assess due to a lack of direct information [36]. In general, vessel noises are within the auditory range of fishes. Ships produce high levels of infrasonic noise, which may be responsible for avoidance reactions observed in fishes Selleck PD-332991 [37]. Contamination may occur from marine discharges, air pollution, and light pollution. Each of these can have long-term and short-term effects. Discharges include oily water, wastewater, ballast water, garbage, and other debris. Pollution is of high concern for animal health

and also for humans eating animals that may have been exposed to contamination [38]. Pollutants can accumulate in animals and concentrations can increase dramatically in higher levels of the food web [39]. Spectacled eiders (Somateria spectabilis) also congregate in winter in vast numbers in small polynyas (open areas within the sea ice) where they would be highly vulnerable to pollution or disturbance [22]. Light pollution is another concern. selleck compound Birds are attracted to lights and bird strikes occur during darkness and heavy fog. High intensity Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase searchlights used as navigation aids during the fall can attract birds, often resulting in birds colliding with into ship structures [40]. Steller׳s eiders (Polysticta stelleri), an endangered species, are especially at risk as they fly fast and

low in large flocks. Garbage and materials from a lost container cargo can also cause a variety of problems for wildlife. Of particular concern are plastic particles from polystyrene foam and other materials that break down over time and may be ingested by seabirds and marine mammals. Marine debris can also cause a variety of entanglement and other types of fouling [41], [42] and [43]. Incineration of waste can cause emissions of furans, dioxins, heavy metals, and other pollutants. These can enter the marine environment and also affect human health, especially when the pollutants are emitted in the vicinity of communities [44]. Oil spills can result from an accident involving tankers and barges that carry oil and fuel or any vessel that runs on petroleum-based fuels. Oil spills are a concern due to acute and chronic toxicity to marine organisms, fouling of fur and feathers, ingestion of oil directly or through predation on organisms that have taken up oil compounds, and inhalation of volatile fractions of the oil [38].

We use only adult males, since preliminary studies using both mal

We use only adult males, since preliminary studies using both male and females, resulted Autophagy inhibitor price in large variation in enzymes activities, probably due to physiological reproductive

variations in females. The insects were starved for 48 h and then fed ad libitum for 24 h with pupae of T. molitor L. Adults of P. nigrispinus were immobilized in cold and dissected in saline solution (0.1 M NaCl, 0.1 M KH2PO4, 0.1 M Na2HPO4, pH 7.2). Salivary glands and midguts were removed and stored at −80 °C until use. In some insects, the midgut was divided into three regions (anterior, middle and posterior). Samples of the salivary glands, whole midguts and midgut sections were homogenized in cold MilliQ water with the aid of a Potter–Elvehjem homogenizer. The homogenates were centrifuged at 16,000g for 30 min at 4 °C. The pellets and supernatants were stored at −20° C until use. For the enzymes assays pools of ten midguts were homogeneized in 500 μL of MiliQ water and 20 salivary glands in 100 μL in MiliQ water, whereas for enzymes purification a pool of 40 midguts were homogeneized in 1 mL of MiliQ water. No enzyme inactivation was detected on storage. The contents of the salivary glands and the midgut sections were dispersed in 5 μL selleckchem of MilliQ water and added to 5 μL of a 5-fold dilution of a universal pH indicator (E. Merck,

Darmstadt, pH 4–10). The resulting colored solutions were compared with suitable standard solutions diluted in 5 μL of MilliQ water. Protein content in extracts was determined according to Smith et al. (1985) as modified by Morton and Evans (1992), using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a standard. Unless otherwise specified, hydrolase

assays were performed as follows. α-Amylase activity was measured by determining the appearance of reducing groups (Noelting and Bernfeld, 1948) in 50 mM citrate–phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 using 0.5% (w/v) starch as substrate. Absorbance was measured at 550 nm. Aminopeptidase assays were accomplished using 1 mM l-leucine p-nitroanilide (LpNA) as substrate in 50 mM citrate–phosphate buffer pH 6.0, according to Erlanger et al. (1961) and absorbance measured at 550 nm. α-Glucosidase selleck inhibitor activity was determined by following the release of p-nitrophenolate from 5 mM p-nitrophenyl-α-d-glucoside (pNPαGlu) in 50 mM citrate–phosphate buffer pH 6.0 and absorbance measured at 420 nm, as described in Terra et al. (1979). Serine protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin) assays were performed in 0.1 M Tris–HCl, pH 7.5 as follows. Activities were quantified by determining the methyl-coumarin fluorescence (excitation 360 nm and emission 460 nm) released from 1 mM carbobenzoxy-Phe-Arg-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (Z-FR-MCA) in the case of trypsin and 1 mM succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-7-amino-4-methyl-coumarin (Suc-AAPF-MCA) in the case of chymotrypsin.

29 °C) using the RCP26 scenario

29 °C) using the RCP26 scenario check details to 2.53 °C (1.63 °C) using the RCP85 scenario (data not shown). In general, there is significant variability in seasonal warming, expressed as SST, during the current century for the different CMIP5 ensemble mean scenarios. The Mediterranean

Sea SST is projected to warm significantly in each scenario, especially in summer (2.92–0.47 °C century− 1), as seen in Figure 7b. Similarly, the AAM sub-basin is projected to warm significantly, ranging from a maximum of 1.68–0.31 °C century− 1 in summer to a minimum of 1.35–0.29 °C century− 1 in winter. Moreover, the Black Sea is also projected to warm significantly, ranging from a maximum of 2.81–0.53 °C century− 1 in summer to a minimum of 2.33–0.51 °C century− 1 in winter (data not shown). click here Mediterranean Sea surface variability

is affected by a combination of oceanic and atmospheric processes and displays significant regional and seasonal behaviour. AVHRR gridded annual SST data over the Mediterranean Sea indicate a range of 3.5 °C between a maximum SST of 21.2 °C over the Levantine sub-basin and a minimum SST of 17.7 °C over the LPC sub-basin. These data also indicate a seasonal SST range of 10 °C, ranging from 15.2 °C in winter, through 18.8 °C in spring and 19.8 °C in autumn, to 25 °C in summer. The Mediterranean SST is significantly warming by 0.35 °C decade− 1, with a seasonal trend variability peaking in spring at 0.38 °C decade− 1 followed by 0.32 °C decade− 1 in summer, 0.22 °C decade− 1 in autumn and 0.160 °C decade− 1 in winter. However, the Black Sea (AAM sub-basin) displays a higher (lower) warming trend of 0.51 °C decade− 1 (0.24 °C decade− 1). This Tau-protein kinase annual Mediterranean warming trend agrees with the previous findings of Nykjaer (2009) and Skliris et al. (2012) but runs counter to those of D’Ortenzio et al. (2000). The disagreement with D’Ortenzio et al. (2000) is probably due to the examination of different time periods. However, the annual Black Sea SST warming trend found here is less significant than the trends calculated by Belkin (2009), probably because

Belkin’s study period extends only to 2002. The spatial distribution of SST warming trends leads to significant eddies distributed over the Mediterranean Sea, indicating significant changes in the Mediterranean Sea surface circulation in the near future. The SST warming trends in the various Mediterranean sub-basins are more (less) significant than the SST warming trends in the AAM sub-basin (Black Sea). Similarly, the COV values for the SSTs of the various Mediterranean sub-basins are higher (lower) than those for the AAM sub-basin (Black Sea). At the 95% significance level, the monthly Mediterranean SST is significantly affected by atmospheric temperature (R = 98%), total cloud cover (R = − 0.81), solar radiation to the open water surface (R = 72%), net heat loss from the sea (R = − 53%), precipitation (R = − 0.53), SLP (R = − 0.43), eastward wind stress (R = − 0.

, 2011; http://www tractor-mri org uk) Independent sample t-test

, 2011; Independent sample t-tests indicated that the 90 participants in the current study did not differ significantly from the other participants that attended wave 2 of LBC1936 testing for LM1 [t (862) = −1.15, p = .25], LM2 [t (862) = −1.31, p = .19], VPAI [t (843) = −1.20, p = .23] and VPAII [t (841) = −1.40, p = .16]. Pearson’s correlations with large effect sizes between tests for scores of immediate [LM1 and VPA1; r (87) = .56,

p < .001] and delayed recall [LMII and VPAII; r (87) = .50, p < .001] suggested that the test scores Selleckchem Ku-0059436 could be combined into two overall measures. Z-scores were created and averaged to yield two scores of verbal memory ability for each participant; one of Immediate PI3K Inhibitor Library order (M = −.01, SD = .90) and one of Delayed recall ability (M = −.01, SD = .89). One participant did not complete the VPA, and so the score for LM performance was used in place of an average verbal memory ability score. Correlations among raw memory scores are given in Supplementary Table I. All regional volumes were controlled for intracranial volume (ICV; reflecting

maximal healthy brain size; Royle et al., 2013). As such, residuals derived from the linear regression between ICV and regional volume allow us to compare volumes across individuals, accounting for how large one would expect them to be given their maximal healthy brain size. Thus, two individuals with the same raw IFG volume (for example) are not necessarily treated the same; rather, the corrected value represents its actual size relative to its expected size within the sample. Though this is an imperfect measure that cannot take account of individual differences in the degree of tissue-specific change

(for which longitudinal data fantofarone are required), we contend that – particularly in the context of older participants – this step is preferable to using raw values, which cannot differentiate at all between participants with different levels of global atrophy. The resultant unstandardized residuals were used in all further analysis. Outlier (±3 SD) and normality checks were performed on all variables. The object maps of the outlying values were inspected (without knowledge of their relation to other variables) to check for measurement error. A single marginal outlier was identified in both left and right hippocampi, and they were winsorized following examination of object maps by one of the authors (NAR) in order to preserve data points but minimize the disproportionate effect of outlying points on parametric analyses. Tract segmentation quality was examined by one of the authors (SMM).

For RF and BF, SENIAM recommendations were used (Hermens et al ,

For RF and BF, SENIAM recommendations were used (Hermens et al., 1999). Data was recorded at a sample rate of 2000 samples/s with a multichannel Porti5 EMG system (TMS-international, Enschede, The Netherlands; Hu et al., 2010a). Four clusters of three LED Markers each were fixed onto small lightweight custom-made triangular frames, and attached halfway along the upper and lower legs for registration with a 2 × 3 camera system (OPTOTRAK 3020, Northern Digital, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada), connected via a synchronization cable to the Porti5 EMG system. To

determine leg movements, the heights of the centers of the clusters were calculated. The kinematic sampling frequency was 50 samples/s. The ASLR was performed in supine position with the

feet 20 cm apart (Mens et al., 2001). Subjects were instructed to raise one leg until the heel was 20 cm above the table, without bending the knees, and keeping the leg elevated PD0325901 cell line for about Epacadostat 10 s (“Normal”). To increase statistical precision, this was done three times per leg per condition. After every ASLR, subjects were asked to relax for approximately 10 s. The whole procedure was repeated with a weight added just above the ankle (“Weight”), so that the static moment of the leg with respect to the hip was increased by 50%. To calculate the required amount of weight (Zatsiorsky, 2002; p. 605), manually measured lower extremity anthropometry was used. Finally, the ASLR was repeated with a non-elastic pelvic belt (“Belt”; 3221/3300, Rafys, Hengelo, The Netherlands),

just below the ASIS (Damen et al., 2002; Mens et al., 2006), with a tension of 50 N (Vleeming et al., 1992; Mens et al., 1999), fine-tuned with an inbuilt gauge. Data was analyzed with MATLAB 7.4 (The Mathworks, Natick, MA, USA). Kinematic data were filtered with a 4th order bi-directional low pass Butterworth filter with a cutoff frequency of 5 Hz. We determined the onset and the peak of leg raise, i.e., the first point with zero velocity before/after a peak in velocity. Leg raise velocity was calculated as the height of peak position divided by the time to reach peak position. Due to technical problems with the amplifier, TA EMG was not usable in four subjects, DOK2 which left twelve valid datasets for TA. EMG data were high-pass filtered at 250 Hz (1st order Butterworth; Hu et al., 2010a), then full-wave rectified, and low-pass filtered at 5 Hz (2nd order Butterworth). The median amplitude during ASLR plateau (5 through 10 s after movement onset) was calculated. To quantify the asymmetry of activity of TA, OI, and OE, an Asymmetry Index was calculated as: (ipsilateral − contralateral) activity/(ipsilateral + contralateral) activity × 100%, “ipsilateral” and “contralateral” referring to the leg being raised. Positive values indicate more ipsilateral, negative values more contralateral muscle activity. Outliers were identified from box plots (Figs.

Increased expression of iNOS and COX-2 has been reported in vario

Increased expression of iNOS and COX-2 has been reported in various other tumors [17], and other studies have demonstrated a correlation between the expression of iNOS and NT and that of COX-2 [18] and their spatial co-localization with TAM infiltration and VEGF expression [19] and [20]. Our data suggest a role for TAMs and COX-2 expression in the up-regulation of expression of iNOS and NT in the tumor stroma. Furthermore, the abundant expression of COX-2 along with iNOS and NT in the tumor stroma may have induced HIF-1 expression in the tumors, and this, in turn, may also

upregulate the expression of VEGF. One of the predominant inflammatory protein markers overexpressed in all of our WTs was COX-2, selleck which was highly selleck inhibitor expressed

in the tumor stroma and, to a lesser degree, in all other tumor components. The COX-2 expression was further confirmed in the mouse model of WT, which has shown a similar expression pattern with the human tumors. This spatial expression is in marked contrast to the findings of previous studies that reported moderate to strong cytoplasmic expression of COX-2 in blastemal and epithelial components of the tumors but no expression in the tumor stroma [8]. Various mechanisms could be responsible, individually or in combination, for the abundant COX-2 expression in WTs. First, the infiltrating immune cells themselves could be overexpressing COX-2. Second, tumor fibroblasts could be generating COX-2 in

response to macrophage infiltration or the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. Third, COX-2 expression in these tumors may be induced by fetal mitogen IGF2 through the Ras/Raf/Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase also known as MEK/ERK pathway, as has been reported in human keratinocytes [21]. Overexpression of IGF2 has been reported in various cancers [22], [23], [24] and [25], including 70% of WTs [26] and [27]. We have previously reported upregulated p-ERK1/2 expression in mouse WTs engineered to overexpress IGF2 and also in human WTs [9], suggesting a role for ERK signaling in WT development. The robust expression of COX-2 and p-ERK1/2 we observed in the current series of tumors Calpain further suggests that one consequence of IGF2 over expression in WTs is COX-2 up-regulation and promotion of an inflammatory microenvironment and that this effect is mediated by enhanced p-ERK signaling. COX-2 can also activate the expression of HIF-1 through its enzymatic product prostaglandin E2[21] and [28]. The expression of COX-2 and HIF-1 was spatially similar in the tumors we assessed. HIF-1 expression was predominantly nuclear in the tumor stroma, with granular cytoplasmic and membranous expression in blastemal and epithelial regions, which is consistent with a previous report [5]. COX-2 activation of HIF-1 can also occur through hypoxia [5] or hypoxia-independent mechanisms [29], the latter involving p-ERK1/2 [30].

, 1982, Rosenthal,

, 1982, Rosenthal, I-BET-762 in vivo 1983, Ishimoto and Chrispeels, 1996 and Silva et al., 2001). The relationship between bruchids and legumes (family Fabaceae) is unique in natural environments, because approximately 80% of bruchid species only develop inside leguminous seeds and

these seeds are only significantly consumed by bruchids (Southgate, 1979, Johnson, 1981 and Kergoat et al., 2007). There is not a similar interdependence in nature between a group of insects and a group of plants such as that of bruchid-legume seeds. Interactions between bruchids and their seed hosts are complex and have led to the appearance of adaptive mechanisms enabling the insects to reproduce and develop despite the fact that leguminous seeds are amongst the most well chemically defended plant organs. However, some bruchid species were able to

exploit anthropic environments by Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library clinical trial shifting their habits to infest seeds in the field to attack the seeds in storage environments. The most economically important of those species are the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus), the common bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus) and the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus). They are easy to breed and handle, and laboratory colonies experience conditions similar to their storage habitat. The cowpea seed beetle, C. maculatus (Fabricius), is a cosmopolitan pest of stored legumes, particularly seeds of the genus Vigna, e.g. Vigna unguiculata and Vigna angularis. Females cement their eggs to the surface of seeds and approximately six days later (at our conditions), first-instar larvae eclose and burrow through the tegument to reach the seed cotyledon. Larval development (four instars) and pupation are completed entirely within a single host seed. Adults emerge from the seeds through a “pupal window” eroded in the tegument just before pupation

and are able to mate and oviposit within a question Clomifene of few hours. At 29 °C, the life cycle in our colony takes about 28 days. C. maculatus adults can easily be maintained in the laboratory as aphagous, this means that they are able to survive and reproduce without food and water. Both females and males of C. maculatus are capable of multiple mating during their lifetimes ( Fox, 1993). During copulation, virgin C. maculatus males transfer a large volume of sperm, which can reach 8–10% of their body weight ( Eady, 1995 and Eady et al., 2007). Another conspicuous observation concerning copulation in C. maculatus is the fact that the male inflicts injuries in the female’s genital tract due to the numerous and sclerotized spines that adorn its penis ( Crudgington and Siva-Jothy, 2000 and Edvardsson and Tregenza, 2005).

Patients were recruited according to the updated diagnostic crite

Patients were recruited according to the updated diagnostic criteria of IIH and papilledema was documented in all subjects by an ophthalmological examination including funduscopy. Twenty-five individuals with other neurological disorders served as controls. Sonographic evaluation of the optic nerve was possible in all participants. Compared to controls the ONSD was significantly enlarged among patients with IIH bilaterally [6.4 ± 0.6 mm vs. 5.4 ± 0.5 mm].

After lumbar puncture with a therapeutic removal of 30–50 ml of CSF we observed a significant decrease of the ONSD on both sides (right ONSD 5.8 ± 0.7 mm, left ONSD 5.9 ± 0.7 mm) (Fig. 1). However, in some patients with IIH, the ONSD was not altered or only slightly altered, e.g. a decline of 0.4 mm or more was only documented in five Stem Cell Compound Library ic50 individuals. This may possibly be related to findings of a defective CSF circulation in the optic nerve sheath in this disorder, a state that is referred to as optic nerve compartment syndrome [23]. The ROC curve analysis revealed an optimal

cut-off value for predicting raised ICP of 5.8 mm with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 84%. The mean optic disk elevation in subjects with IIH was 1.2 ± 0.3 mm. Nevertheless, one patient showed no evidence of optic disk elevation in transbulbar sonography but had signs of papilledema in funduscopy. Corresponding to previous studies, we found no decrease of the optic disk elevation after lumbar puncture in the observation period

of 24 h. As a result sonographic ONSD evaluation may be useful in detecting raised ICP in patients BIBW2992 with presumed IIH. Furthermore, our data suggest a potential usefulness of this technique for monitoring of treatment effects. In addition, ONSD values and optic disk levels were slightly asymmetric, reflecting the complex anatomy of the subarachnoidal space of the optic nerve and its possible influence on the cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. For this reason we recommend that each eye should be evaluated separately and mean ONSD values should be designated for both eyes. Predominantly, the relationship of ONSD alterations and ICP changes was verified in clinical situations with raised ICP. One case series and one prospective study investigated the ONSD in spontaneous intracranial hypotension [24] and [25]. Forskolin concentration Examining the orbit with T2-weighted MRI techniques, they observed a collapsed optic nerve sheath. Dubost et al. published an ultrasound study on ten patients with postdural puncture headache after lumbar puncture or epidural anesthesia [26]. Consistent with the mentioned MRI-results a small ONSD of 4.8 mm was detected before treatment. After successful therapy with a lumbar epidural blood patch a marked enlargement of the ONSD was found. Accordingly, in one patient in whom the intervention failed to resolve the headache they recorded no ONSD distension.

716C>T, p T239M) genotype and P-PTH concentration and U-Pi/U-Crea

716C>T, p.T239M) genotype and P-PTH concentration and U-Pi/U-Crea in healthy school children. In addition, we found an association between FGF23 diplotype and total Afatinib hip BMD Z-scores, but not with other skeletal parameters. We observed a genetic variant that influences circulating PTH and phosphate without

affecting serum FGF23 concentration. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings in a larger cohort and to elucidate the impact of other genes implicated in phosphate homeostasis [27] on bone density parameters and cardiovascular morbidity as to better clarify the link between gene polymorphisms and diseases secondary to variations in phosphate regulation. Lamberg-Allardt has received payment for lectures from Roche and Nutricia in Finland. Other authors have no conflicts of interest to report. We are grateful to the children and adolescents who took part in this research. We thank

Nea Boman, Heini Karp and Elisa Saarnio for technical assistance. This work was supported by the Foundation for Pediatric Research, the Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation, the Ministry of Education, the Academy of Finland, the Helsinki University Central Hospital research funds, the Sigrid Juselius Foundation and the Folkhälsan Research Foundation; all Helsinki, Finland. “
“The nature of the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoarthritis (OA) remains a topic

of debate [1]. While epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated an association between higher BMD and both prevalent [2], [3], [4] and [5] Epigenetic inhibitors library and incident [6], [7] and [8] radiographic OA of the large joints, the mechanisms behind these associations remain unclear; understanding these mechanisms will be key to translating research findings into therapeutic benefit [1]. To address this question from a novel perspective, we set out to investigate the prevalence and phenotype of OA in our cohort of high bone mass (HBM) individuals [9], compared with a control group. HBM individuals many have extreme elevations in BMD likely to be genetically determined [9] and [10] and thus present from early adulthood, constituting a unique population for the investigation of causal pathways between BMD and OA. We have recently shown that HBM is associated with both an increased prevalence of self-reported joint replacement [11], and an increased prevalence of radiographic hip OA with a predominance of bone-forming features (osteophytosis and subchondral sclerosis) [12]. HBM is also associated with other characteristics which may potentially contribute to a higher risk of OA, including increased body mass index (BMI) [13]. While hip and knee OA both increase with age [14], evidence suggests that OA at these two joint sites has different determinants [15].