A diagnosis Of Castleman’s disease was rendered, taking into cons

A diagnosis Of Castleman’s disease was rendered, taking into consideration cytologic features tares and cell

block findings. Subsequent histopathology confirmed the diagnosis.


A definitive diagnosis of Castleman’s disease on FNA is possible by a combination of cytologic features and cell block technique with an appropriate use of immunohistochemistry. (Acta Cytol 2009;53:316-318)”
“Background: Ultraviolet radiation is harmful for human skin, and photodamaging pathologies such as actinic erythema, are formerly described as a consequence of UV direct Ruboxistaurin mouse effect on DNA and indirectly by local immune reactions. However, the degree of participation of oxidative stress in actinic erythema and the role of antioxidants in photoprotection are still not fully understood.

Objective: To evaluate the possible palliative role check details of a combination of the antioxidants vitamins C and E in human cutaneous erythema when applied topically before and after UV exposure.

Materials and methods: The study included 20 volunteers of phototypes II, II-III and III with no solar exposure for two months prior to the study. The volunteers were submitted to a phototest consisting on the analysis of the minimal erythemal dose (MED) under different treatments:

1. Untreated irradiated skin; 2. Irradiated skin previously treated with vehicle; 3. Irradiated skin previously treated with a combination of vitamins (2.5% vit E-5% vit C): and 4. Skin treated with the antioxidant combination after irradiation. Cutaneous erythema was evaluated 24 h after exposure and the MED was calculated for each treatment.

Results: The application of vehicle did not significantly affect the MED compared to untreated irradiated skin. Application of the antioxidant combination, prior to irradiation, increased the MED in all phototypes compared with untreated irradiated skin with an average increase of 36.9%. Antioxidants applied after exposure promoted an average increase of

the MED by 19.8%.

Conclusions: Combination of topical antioxidants (vitamins C and E) shows photoprotection activity against erythema, mainly owing to their high absorption properties. Moreover, their antioxidant LY294002 inhibitor activity could be considered as additive, and independent of their optical properties. (C) 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Magnesium, the second most abundant intracellular cation, plays a major role in regulating insulin effect and insulin mediated glucose uptake. It has been shown that serum magnesium levels were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR (homeostasis model of insulin resistance) index.

Aim: To investigate the relationship between serum magnesium levels with obesity and insulin resistance in childhood.

Methods : Two hundred and three children and adolescents (117 obese children and 86 controls) were included.

Risk stratification in all the examined scenarios was related to

Risk stratification in all the examined scenarios was related to serum LDL-C levels; in other words, the degree of cardiovascular risk was always lipid dependent.”
“Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rheumatological disease which has to be distinguished from other entities causing inflammatory myopathy. The usual clinical presentation of inflammatory myopathy associated

with connective tissue disease is not different from isolated polymyositis or dermatomyositis, i.e., subacute onset of proximal weakness affecting both upper and lower girdle with high serum CK level. Here we report a patient with MCTD/myositis overlap OSI-744 supplier syndrome displaying an uncommon clinical presentation and a distribution of muscle weakness involving facial, neck and arm muscles with sparing of lower limbs. We also describe the scarcity of muscle regeneration

signs on the muscle biopsy with complete absence of alkaline phosphatase positivity in the endomysial and permysial connective tissue as a novel finding of this condition.”
“Functionalization of polyethylene (PE) beads was accomplished via radiation induced graft copolymerization of acrylic acid/acrylamide (AAc/AAm) binary comonomer of different compositions onto such beads. Factors affecting the grafting yield were optimized and the occurrence of the grafted chains learn more was confirmed by following the FTIR spectra of the grafted beads. SEM analyses were used to follow the variation of the morphology of the grafting

and immobilization onto PE beads. Some bio-active molecules such as Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and Prolactin were immobilized to AZD9291 clinical trial the radiation functionalized PE beads. The parameters may affect the immobilization process such as degree of grafting, temperature, and pH of the coupling buffer and the coupling period were investigated. The obtained results show that the grafting of AAc offers a better immobilization environment than those of AAm and their copolymer. It is found that the highest immobilization degree would be achieved at pH 7 and 37 degrees C for 24 h. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 3725-3733, 2012″
“A single-sided high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear synchronous motor (HTSLSM) with an HTS bulk magnet array as its secondary has been developed. A field-cooled magnetization system has also been developed to obtain the magnet array with alternate magnetic poles.

Finally, neurologic and developmental outcome after surgical repa

Finally, neurologic and developmental outcome after surgical repair of CHD will be reviewed.


Neurodevelopmental Metabolism inhibitor evaluation preoperatively and postoperatively in CHD patients should be standard practice, not only to identify those with impairments who would benefit from intervention services

but also to identify risk factors and strategies to optimize outcome. Fetal management and intervention strategies for specific defects may ultimately play a role in improving in-utero hemodynamics and increasing cerebral oxygen delivery to enhance brain development.”
“The caudal epidural space is a popular site for analgesia in pediatrics. High variation in blind needle placement is common during caudal epidurals, increasing the risk of intravascular and intrathecal spread. Knowledge of safe distances and angles for accessing the caudal epidural space in premature infants can improve the safety of caudal

INCB024360 epidural blocks.

Thirty-nine fetuses with crown-heel length between 33 and 50 cm, corresponding to gestational age of 7-9 months, were included. The dorsal surface of the sacrum from the fourth lumbar vertebra to the tip of the coccyx was dissected, following which measurements were taken on dorsal surface and midsagittal sections. The angle of depression of the needle was measured using a goniometer following the two-step method of needle insertion.

Right and left sacral cornua were palpable in 23 of 39 fetuses (58.97%). Termination of dural sac was at S2 in most of the fetuses (53.84%), whereas the apex of the sacral hiatus was at S3 in most (58.97%). The distance from the apex of the hiatus to the termination of dura ranged from 3 to 13 mm; the anteroposterior distance of the canal at the apex of the hiatus ranged from 1.72 to 4.38 mm. All sacral parameters correlated with crown-heel length except inter-cornual distance, depth

Savolitinib manufacturer of canal at hiatus, and height of sacral hiatus.

Distances and angles for accessing the caudal epidural space in fetuses do not provide all parameters for safe performance of caudal epidural blocks in premature and low birth weight infants because the apex of the sacral hiatus and the termination of the dura show wide variation in location.”
“In the present work, polyurethane foam (PUF) sponge was used to develop and evaluate an alternative treatment process based on biodegradation ability of immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium for bagasse preparation effluent while trends of the activities of the ligninolytic enzymes and the COD, BOD and color was measured. Results showed P. chrysosporium is able to reduce the color of bagasse preparation effluent by either free and immobilized fungal cell operation from initial value of 500 mg L-1 Pt-Co units (PCU) to final value of 111 +/- 10 and 86 +/- 8 mg L-1 PCU (78 and 83% removal efficiency) after 9 days of treatment respectively. After 7 days of treatment, the concentrations of BOD were measured as 113 +/- 17 and 46 +/- 8 mg L-1 (removal efficiencies of 96 and 98.

Conclusions: The assessment of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-8 conc

Conclusions: The assessment of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-8 concentrations in the CSF is useful in the differential

diagnosis of neuroinfection. Because many factors may influence NO production in the central nervous system (CNS), it is not clear whether NO values can be used for the differential diagnosis of meningitis, and further studies are required”
“Introduction Many studies have demonstrated the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency Compound C mouse in the older population.

Objective This study sought to determine whether supplementation with intramuscular vitamin D improved 25OH vitamin D levels significantly.

Subjects Ninety female inpatients aged over 65 years were assigned to receive 300,000 IU of intramuscular vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) or no intervention.

Methods Baseline 25OH vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels were taken and repeated 3 months after supplementation.

Results Patients who received treatment showed a significant improvement in 25OH vitamin D levels, from 25.5 to 81 nmol/L with 11% remaining deficient. No patient became hypercalcaemic after treatment.

Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is common throughout all age groups in the Irish population and particularly the older female population who have increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Intramuscular vitamin D significantly improves 25OH

vitamin D levels compared to no treatment and may combat BMS-777607 price non-compliance with oral medication.”
“Although ocular lymphoproliferative diseases may be rarely encountered by dermatopathologists, the frequency may increase particularly as more and more subspecialties rely on dermatopathology services. Emerging data suggest that there are some similarities between ocular and cutaneous lymphoproliferative

diseases with respect to their clinical behavior, prognosis, and cytogenetics. In this case report, a patient with ocular follicle center lymphoma who subsequently developed Selleckchem β-Nicotinamide ocular reactive lymphoid hyperplasia is presented with an accompanying review of the literature on the subjects. The encounter of both follicular center lymphoma and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in the same patient provides a rare opportunity to compare and contrast the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical findings of the respective lymphoproliferative diseases situated at opposite ends of the spectrum.”
“Purpose: The aim of the study was to compare the susceptibility of Candida species to caspofungin and itraconazole.

Material and methods: 118 strains of Candida species were used in the study: 8 pattern strains and 110 strains isolated from different ontocenoses. The susceptibility of fungi strains to drugs was determined by diffusion in agar gel. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was calculated from the linear regression equation with the use of the method by Kadlubowski.

Results: The MIC value for caspofungin for the pattern strains ranged from 0.

Results: On the basis of reviews during case selection, five nodu

Results: On the basis of reviews during case selection, five nodules seen at follow-up were judged not to have been present

at baseline; for 19 of the remaining 95 cases, at least one reader judged the nodule not to have been present at baseline. For the 76 nodules that were unanimously considered to have been present at baseline, 21%-47% (mean 6 standard deviation, 30% +/- 9) were judged to have grown. The kappa values were similar for growth (kappa = 0.55) and a positive screening result (kappa = 0.51) and were lower for a change in margins and attenuation (kappa = 0.27-0.31). The kappa value in the recommendation of high-versus low-level follow-up BYL719 in vivo was high (kappa = 0.66).

Conclusion: Reader agreement on nodule growth and screening result was moderate to substantial. Agreement on follow-up recommendations was lower. (C) RSNA, 2011″
“Phenotypic and clinical features of individuals with ring chromosome 18 [r(18)] vary with the extent of deletion of the short (18p-) or long arm (18q-). Most patients with r(18), therefore, demonstrate a clinical spectrum

of both 18p- and 18q- deletions. Short stature, microcephaly, mental and motor retardation, craniofacial dysmorphism and extremity abnormalities are the most commonly reported features in patients with r(18). Abnormalities of chromosome 18, especially 18p- syndrome, are often reported with autoimmune thyroid Crenolanib purchase disease and growth hormone deficiency, MI-503 chemical structure but reports of endocrine abnormalities associated with r(18) are rare. Here, we report

a case of an African-American female with hyperthyroidism, type 1 diabetes mellitus, vitiligo and IgA deficiency associated with a r(18) chromosome complement. This patient additionally had mild intellectual disability and dysmorphic features. Karyotype analysis showed a de novo ring chromosome 18 (deletion 18q23-18qter and deletion 18p11.3-18pter). Although this unique association of autoimmune polyglandular endocrinopathy with ring chromosome 18 could be coincidental, we speculate that a gene or genes on chromosome 18 might play a role in the autoimmune process.”
“A study was made of Salmonella contamination in chicken carcasses and giblets sampled from retail outlets in Meknes, Morocco. The serotypes as well as antibiotic-resistance patterns of the Salmonella isolates were determined. A total of 576 samples (144 from popular market, 144 from artisanal slaughterhouses, 144 from poulterers’ shops and 144 from a supermarket) were tested. Among them, 57 (9.90%) were positive for Salmonella, 20.83% (30/57) from popular market, 16.66% (24/57) from artisanal slaughterhouses and 2.08% (3/57) from poulterers’ shops. The 57 Salmonella isolates were divided into 4 serotypes.

A total of 458 consecutive patients attending urology outpatient

A total of 458 consecutive patients attending urology outpatient clinics were asked to complete a standardised questionnaire regarding their knowledge of their

conditions and whether they had attempted to enhance this knowledge and if so, via which sources.

Patient’s knowledge was assessed using a visual analogue scale of 1-10

Mean score given for patients’ knowledge of their condition was 5/10. 19.5% of patients sought no further information, whereas the remaining patients’ sources of EGFR inhibition information varied from primary care physicians (44.5%), Internet (23%), and other sources (13%).

Our study highlights a worrying lack of patients’ knowledge of their condition and illustrates the need for standardisation of patients’ information resources. We recommend the development of internationally approved IUGA patient information leaflets to provide clear up-to-date information to our urogynecology patients.”
“The involvement of Toll-like receptors

(TLRs) in bovine herpesvirus types 1 (BoHV-1) this website and 5 (BoHV-5) infections has not been analyzed. In this study, the role of TLR signaling on virus replication was investigated. Blood leukocytes consistently express TLRs. Thus, our approach was to study in vitro the effects of agonist stimulation of TLRs expressed by peripheral blood leukocytes on BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 replication. Furthermore, the patterns of TLRs 3,7-9 expression on virus-infected-bovine leukocytes were analyzed. Only Imiquimod (TLR7/8 agonist) showed anti-viral

activity on infected MDBK cells. This is the first evidence that the timely activation of TLR7/8 signaling is effective in impairing BoHV-1 and 5 replication, thereby providing an experimental indication that Imiquimod may be a promising immune modulator. This work describes, Nepicastat manufacturer for the first time, the expression patterns of TLRs in BoHV-1- or BoHV-5-infected-bovine leukocytes, suggesting the involvement of TLR7 and TLR9 in the recognition of these viruses. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Neuronal oscillations of different frequencies are hypothesized to be basic for temporal perception; this theoretical concept provides the frame to discuss two temporal mechanisms that are thought to be essential for cognitive processing. One such mechanism operates with periods of oscillations in the range of some tens of milliseconds, and is used for complexity reduction of temporally and spatially distributed neuronal activities. Experimental evidence comes from studies on temporal-order threshold, choice reaction time, single-cell activities, evoked responses in neuronal populations or latency distributions of oculomotor responses. The other mechanism refers to pre-semantic integration in the temporal range of approximately 2-3 s.

RESULTS: A bench scale HFMPB was inoculated with Spirulina platen

RESULTS: A bench scale HFMPB was inoculated with Spirulina platensis and operated with a 2-15% CO2 supply. A mass transfer model was developed and found to be a good tool to estimate CO2 mass transfer coefficients at varying liquid velocities. Overall mass transfer

coefficients were 1.8 x 10(-6), 2.8 x 10(-6), 5.6 x 10(-6)m s(-1) at Reynolds numbers of 38, 63, and 138, respectively. A maximum CO2 removal efficiency of 85% was observed at an inlet CO2 concentration of 2% and a gas residence time (membrane-lumen) of 8.6 s. The corresponding algal biomass concentrations and NO3 removal efficiencies were 2131 mg L-1 and 68%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The results show that the combination of CO2 sequestration, Selisistat inhibitor wastewater treatment and biofuel production in an HFMPB is a promising alternative for greenhouse gas mitigation. (C) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Background: Nested case-control studies become increasingly popular as they

can be very efficient for quantifying the diagnostic accuracy of costly or invasive tests or (bio)markers. However, they do not allow for direct estimation of the test’s predictive values or post-test probabilities, let alone for CYT387 research buy their confidence intervals (CIs). Correct estimates of the predictive values itself can easily be obtained using a simple correction by the (inverse) sampling fractions of the cases and controls. But using this correction to estimate the corresponding standard error (SE), falsely increases the number of patients that are actually studied, yielding too small CIs. We compared different approaches for estimating the SE and thus CI of predictive MI-503 values or post-test probabilities of diagnostic test results in a nested case-control study.

Methods: We created datasets based on a large, previously published diagnostic study

on 2 different tests (D-dimer test and calf difference test) with a nested case-control design. We compared six different approaches; the approaches were: 1. the standard formula for the SE of a proportion, 2. adaptation of the standard formula with the sampling fraction, 3. A bootstrap procedure, 4. A approach, which uses the sensitivity, the specificity and the prevalence, 5. Weighted logistic regression, and 6. Approach 4 on the log odds scale. The approaches were compared with respect to coverage of the CI and CI-width.

Results: The bootstrap procedure (approach 3) showed good coverage and relatively small CI widths. Approaches 4 and 6 showed some undercoverage, particularly for the D-dimer test with frequent positive results (positive results around 70%). Approaches 1, 2 and 5 showed clear overcoverage at low prevalences of 0.05 and 0.1 in the cohorts for all case-control ratios.

In Japan, we utilize wards for elderly patients with dementia (WE

In Japan, we utilize wards for elderly patients with dementia (WEDs) for BPSD treatment. However, there are few studies investigating SRT2104 clinical trial the effectiveness of treatment in a WED. In such treatment, physical complications are a challenge physicians must overcome while treating BPSD and safely

returning patients home or to the institutions in which they live. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of treatment in a WED, focusing on physical complications.

Methods: The subjects were 88 patients who were admitted to and discharged from a WED. Severity of dementia, basic ADL, and BPSD were investigated using the Clinical Dementia Rating, Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Differences in characteristics between patients discharged from the WED because of physical complications and all other patients were also examined.

Results: We found significant improvements in the PSMS score and decreases in delusions and sleep disturbances in all patients. Patients discharged from the WED because of physical complications had significantly greater severity PXD101 of dementia

at discharge compared to all other patients.

Conclusion: Treatment in a WED seems to be effective for BPSD and ADL, but care should be taken regarding physical complications, especially in patients with advanced dementia.”
“Postpartum depression (PPD) is common, occurring in 10%-15% of women. Due to concerns about teratogenicity of medications in the suckling infant, the treatment of PPD

has often been restricted to psychotherapy. We review here the biological underpinnings to PPD, suggesting a powerful role for the tryptophan catabolites, indoleamine 2,3-dixoygenase, serotonin, and autoimmunity in mediating the consequences of immuno-inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress. It is suggested that SBE-β-CD cost the increased inflammatory potential, the decreases in endogenous anti-inflammatory compounds together with decreased omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, in the postnatal period cause an inflammatory environment. The latter may result in the utilization of peripheral inflammatory products, especially kynurenine, in driving the central processes producing postnatal depression. The pharmacological treatment of PPD is placed in this context, and recommendations for more refined and safer treatments are made, including the better utilization of the antidepressant, and the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of melatonin.”
“Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most frequent neurological diseases. Despite the modern imaging and nuclear techniques which help to diagnose it in a very early stage and lead to a better discrimination of similar diseases, PD has remained a clinical diagnosis. The increasing number of available treatment options makes the disease management often complicated even when the presence of PD seems undoubted.

sCD40L, fibrinogen, tissue factor pathway inhibitor-total (TFPI-t

sCD40L, fibrinogen, tissue factor pathway inhibitor-total (TFPI-total), soluble intercellular adhesion molecules-1 (sICAM-1), sE-selectin, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and von Citarinostat manufacturer Willebrand factor (vWF) changed significantly even after application of the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Changes in lipids did not correlate with C-IMT regression

either when considered singly or when combined in a lipid score. Changes in soluble markers correlated poorly with C-IMT regression when analyzed singly, but strongly when combined in relevant composite scores (inflammation/coagulation score, endothelial activation score, soluble markers score and total score).

Conclusion: In patients with stable coronary artery disease treated with moderate doses of atorvastatin, carotid

IMT regression correlated with changes of inflammation, thrombosis and endothelial activation profiles. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Electrical isolation of the pulmonary veins and Smoothened Agonist disconnection of the left atrial musculature from their arrhythmogenic effects is the cornerstone of definitive and curative treatment in patients with symptomatic recurrent paroxysmal atrial fibrillation that is refractory to antiarrhythmic therapy. The type of lesion produced by balloon cryoablation is such that the tissue architecture is preserved and thrombus formation and the risk of pulmonary vein stenosis are reduced. We report on immediate outcomes in the first five patients who underwent treatment. These cases represent initial experience with the TPX-0005 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor technique in Spain. A total of 20 pulmonary veins were treated and complete acute electrical isolation was achieved in all cases (100%). Patients were discharged from hospital within 72 hours of the procedure, and there were no complications. In conclusion, balloon cryoablation of the pulmonary veins is a practical, safe and

effective technique for achieving the electrophysiologic goal of acute pulmonary vein isolation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.”
“Inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling contribute to the development of congestive heart failure (CHF), but the pathogenesis is still incompletely understood. Therefore, whole blood samples from eight dogs without cardiac disease and eight dogs with CHF were investigated for mRNA expression of IL1 beta, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNF alpha, IFN gamma, TGF beta 1-3, MMP1, -2, -3, -9 and TIMP1-4 using quantitative PCR.

Dogs with CHF had significantly higher IL1 beta (P = 0.015), IL2 (P = 0.043), MMP1 (P = 0.031), TIMP3 (P = 0.012) and lower TNF alpha (P < 0.001), TGF beta 3 (P = 0.006), TIMP1 (P = 0.015) and TIMP2 (P = 0.011) mRNA levels.

Increased pro-inflammatory IL1 beta and anti-fibrotic MMP1 and reduced pro-fibrotic TGF beta and TIMP1 and TIMP2 in dogs with CHF suggest progressive left ventricular remodeling.

A Minimum

A Minimum TGF-beta inhibitor Outcome Set for Testing (MOST) was therefore proposed by selecting a health outcome measure from each category while not being prescriptive about specific outcome measurement selection. The MOST toolkit is therefore proposed to promote standardized evaluation in this field and represents a useful starting point for further consideration of this concept. Neurourol. Urodynam. 31:400403, 2012. (C)

2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Purpose To identify the most significantly represented breeds that were enucleated or eviscerated due to intractable glaucoma following elective cataract surgery and to describe the major histopathologic features of enucleated globes.

Methods A retrospective review of the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin database revealed 153 canine evisceration or enucleation submissions that met inclusion criteria. The most commonly represented breeds were identified, and enucleated globes of these breeds were further evaluated histologically (n = 69). Following standard hematoxylin & eosin staining, globes were evaluated for the presence of; corneal pathology, goniodysgenesis, pigment dispersion, pre-iridal fibrovascular membranes (PIFVMs), peripheral anterior, and/or posterior synechiation, inflammatory infiltrates, lens pathology, retinal pathology, and/or endophthalmitis.

Results The most significantly represented

breeds were this website the Cocker Spaniel (11.7%), Boston Terrier (10.5%), Labrador Retriever (6.5%), Bichon Frise (6.5%), Shih Tzu (5.8%), and Jack Russell Terrier (5.8%). Common histopathologic findings included

inflammatory keratitis, the presence of PIFVMs, and lymphoplasmacytic uveal infiltrates.

Conclusions NSC23766 cell line The Cocker Spaniel, Boston Terrier, Labrador Retriever, Bichon Frise, Shih Tzu, and Jack Russell Terrier may be at increased risk of the development of glaucoma following elective cataract surgery. These findings have potential clinical implications.”
“Aim: A low-protein diet (LPD) during pregnancy induces vascular dysfunction and hypertension in the offspring, prevented by administration of an angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor antagonist in early life to the offspring. Whether such protection extends to subsequent pregnancy is unknown; we therefore hypothesized that administration of a specific AT(1) receptor antagonist (losartan) in early life to offspring of LPD dams would improve vascular dysfunction in their uterine arteries when they, in turn, were pregnant.

Methods: Pregnant rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups fed a control (C) or protein- restricted (R) diet throughout pregnancy. Between two and 10 weeks postnatally, female offspring (F-1) were randomly assigned to drink either pure tap water (CO, RO) or water with losartan (CL, RL). Offspring were mated and killed on gestational day 19 or 20 in order to investigate uterine artery function.