“We have published the dynamic extended folding (DEF) met

“We have published the dynamic extended folding (DEF) method which is a RNA secondary structure prediction approach to simulate the in vivo RNA co-transcriptional folding process In order to verify the reliability of the method we selected the X-ray-determined Tetrahymena group I intron as a sample to construct the framework of its Mocetinostat supplier folding secondary structure Our prediction coincides well with the secondary structure predicted by T R. Cech and the X-ray diffraction crystal structure determined by Lehnert V Our results show that the DEF framework structure of Tetrahymena

group I intron reflects its function sites in a concise and straightforward manner and the scope of the simulation was expanded (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved”

Stimulating an immune response against cancer with the use of vaccines remains a challenge. Selleckchem Savolitinib We hypothesized that combining a melanoma vaccine with interleukin-2, an immune activating agent, could improve outcomes. In a previous phase 2 study, patients with metastatic melanoma receiving high-dose interleukin-2 plus the gp100:209-217(210M) peptide vaccine had a higher rate of response than the rate that is expected among patients who are treated with interleukin-2



We conducted a randomized, phase 3 trial involving 185 patients at 21 centers. Eligibility criteria included stage IV or locally advanced stage III cutaneous melanoma, expression of HLA(star)A0201, an absence of brain metastases, and suitability for high-dose interleukin-2 therapy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive interleukin-2 alone (720,000 IU per kilogram of body weight per dose)

Idoxuridine or gp100: 209-217(210M) plus incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (Montanide ISA-51) once per cycle, followed by interleukin-2. The primary end point was clinical response. Secondary end points included toxic effects and progression-free survival.


The treatment groups were well balanced with respect to baseline characteristics and received a similar amount of interleukin-2 per cycle. The toxic effects were consistent with those expected with interleukin-2 therapy. The vaccine-interleukin-2 group, as compared with the interleukin-2-only group, had a significant improvement in centrally verified overall clinical response (16% vs. 6%, P=0.03), as well as longer progression-free survival (2.2 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 3.9 vs. 1.6 months; 95% CI, 1.5 to 1.8; P=0.008). The median overall survival was also longer in the vaccine-interleukin-2 group than in the interleukin-2-only group (17.8 months; 95% CI, 11.9 to 25.8 vs. 11.1 months; 95% CI, 8.7 to 16.3; P=0.06).


In patients with advanced melanoma, the response rate was higher and progression-free survival longer with vaccine and interleukin-2 than with interleukin-2 alone. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00019682.

The goal of this review is to summarize the current knowledge reg

The goal of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the mechanisms of coagulopathy after blunt traumatic brain injury. The current and emerging diagnostic tools, radiological findings, treatment options, and prognosis are discussed.”
“Human cytomegalovirus

(HCMV) infection causes dramatic alterations of intermediary metabolism, similar to those found in tumor cells. In infected cells, glucose carbon is not completely broken down by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle for energy; instead, it is used biosynthetically. This process requires increased glucose uptake, increased glycolysis and the diversion of glucose carbon, in the form of citrate, from the TCA cycle for use in HCMV-induced fatty acid biosynthesis. The diversion of citrate from the TCA cycle (cataplerosis) requires induction see more of enzymes to promote glutaminolysis, the conversion of glutamine to alpha-ketoglutarate to maintain the TCA cycle (anaplerosis) and ATP production. Such changes could result in heretofore uncharacterized pathogenesis, potentially implicating HCMV as a subtle cofactor in many maladies, including oncogenesis. Recognition of the effects of HCMV, and other check details viruses, on host cell metabolism will provide new

understanding of viral pathogenesis and novel avenues for antiviral therapy.”
“Evidence from diverse literatures supports the viewpoint that two modes of self-regulation exist, a lower-order system that responds quickly to associative cues of the moment and a higher-order system that responds more reflectively and planfully; that low serotonergic

function is linked to relative dominance of the lower-order system; that how dominance of the lower-order system is manifested depends on additional variables; and that low serotonergic function therefore can promote behavioral patterns as divergent as impulsive aggression and lethargic depression. Literatures reviewed include work on two-mode models; studies of brain function selleck products supporting the biological plausibility of the two-mode view and the involvement of serotonergic pathways in functions pertaining to it and studies relating low serotonergic function to impulsiveness, aggression (including extreme violence), aspects of personality, and depression vulnerability. Substantial differences between depression and other phenomena reviewed are interpreted by proposing that depression reflects both low serotonergic function and low reward sensitivity. The article closes with brief consideration of the idea that low serotonergic function relates to even more diverse phenomena, whose natures depend in part on sensitivities of other systems.”
“BACKGROUND: Investigation into the provider volume-outcomes association for patients undergoing spine surgery has been limited.

Growing HBV-producing cells with lipoprotein-depleted serum (LPDS

Growing HBV-producing cells with lipoprotein-depleted serum (LPDS) resulted in an important reduction of the amount of cholesterol within 24 h of treatment (about 40%). Cell exposure to chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of the clathrin-mediated pathway used by the low-density lipoprotein receptor for endocytosis, also impacted the cholesterol level; however, this level of inhibition Caspase Inhibitor VI price was not achievable when the synthesis inhibitor lovastatin was used. HBV secretion was significantly

inhibited in cholesterol-depleted cells (by similar to 80%), while SVP release remained unaffected. The viral DNA genome accumulated in LPDS-treated cells in a time-dependent manner. Specific immunoprecipitation of nucleocapsids and mature virions revealed an increased amount of naked nucleocapsids, while synthesis of the envelope proteins occurred as normally. selleck kinase inhibitor Following analysis of the large envelope protein conformation in purified microsomes, we concluded that cholesterol is important in maintaining

the dual topology of this polypeptide, which is critical for viral envelopment.”
“Long-lived conifer trees depend on both constitutive and induced defenses for resistance against a myriad of potential pathogens and herbivores. In species of spruce (Picea spp.), several of the late events of pathogen-, Fludarabine mw insect-, or elicitor-induced defense responses have previously been characterized at the anatomical, biochemical, transcriptome, and proteome levels in stems and

needles. However, accurately measuring the early events of induced cellular responses in a conifer is technically challenging due to limitations in the precise timing of induction and tissue sampling from intact trees following insect or fungal treatment. In the present study, we used the advantages of Norway spruce (Picea abies) cell suspensions combined with chitosan elicitation to investigate the early proteome response in a conifer. A combination of iTRAQ labeling and a new design of iterative sample analysis employing data-dependent exclusion lists were used for proteome analysis. This approach improved the coverage of the spruce proteome beyond that achieved in any prior study in a conifer system. Comparison of elicitor-induced proteome and transcriptome responses in Norway spruce cells consistently identified features associated with calcium-mediated signaling and response to oxidative stress that have not previously been observed in the response of intact trees to fungal attack.”
“Shortly after the dissertation of the mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi), various RNAi libraries for invertebrates, plants or mammals that enable loss-of-function genetic screens on a genome-wide scale have been developed.

Using immunohistochernistry, both receptor subtypes were identifi

Using immunohistochernistry, both receptor subtypes were identified in cortical neurons. After eMCAO, neuronal cell death was accompanied by reduced neuronal CB1 and CB2 receptor-linked immunofluorescence. In parallel, CBI receptor was found in activated microglia/macrophages 3 days post eMCAO and in astroglia cells at days 3 and 7. CB2 receptor labeling was identified in activated microglia/macrophages or astroglia 3 and 7 days post ischemia, respectively. In addition, immune competent CD45-positive cells check details were characterized

by pronounced CB2 receptor staining 3 and 7 days post eMCAO. KN38-72717, a potent and selective CBI and CB2 receptor agonist, revealed a significant, dose-dependent and long-lasting reduction of cortical lesion sizes due to eMCAO, when applied consecutively before, during and after eMCAO. In addition, severe motor deficits of animals suffering from eMCAO were significantly improved by KN38-7271. KN38-7271 remained effective, even if its application was delayed up to 6 h post eMCAO. Finally, we show that the endocannabinoid system assembles a comprehensive machinery to defend the brain against the devastating consequences of cerebral ischemia. In summary, this study underlines the therapeutic potential of CBI and/or CB2 receptor agonists against neurodegenerative diseases or injuries involving acute or chronic imbalances of cerebral

blood flow and energy consumption. (c) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier PD332991 Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Although an association between the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene

and personality traits had been previously investigated. results from previous studies were not conclusive. This may be due to the method of grouping used, which categorized the gene population into two groups based on the length of the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in exon 3. In the present study, we categorized 616 healthy Japanese subjects into more than two groups by further subdividing the DRD4 48-bp VNTR polymorphism, and compared Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) scores among Afatinib order the groups. A significant difference was found between the DRD4 48-bp VNTR polymorphism and novelty seeking (p = 0.016). The novelty-seeking scores in the subjects carrying the 5/5 genotype were significantly higher than in those carrying the 2/2 genotype (p = 0.002) or the 4/4 genotype (p = 0.005). However. when the conventional method of grouping was used (i.e., short alleles vs. long alleles), there were no significant associations between the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism and any TCI scores. Our results suggest that minor 5-repeat allele is associated with high novelty-seeking scores in healthy Japanese subjects. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“We have previously shown that ceftriaxone, beta-lactam antibiotic known to upregulate glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), reduced ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

However, negative results may have been due to follow-up interval

However, negative results may have been due to follow-up intervals at disease stages where no significant progressive brain changes occur. Furthermore, only male or mixed gender samples have been studied. Forty-six patients with schizophrenia (23 females) and 46 healthy controls (23 females) underwent three-dimensional

structural magnetic resonance imaging of the hippocampus and a clinical investigation. Compared with controls, male but not female participants with schizophrenia displayed hippocampal size reduction. Hippocampal size of female but not male schizophrenia patients was related to disorder duration, indicating smaller hippocampal size in female patients with longer disorder duration. Female schizophrenia patients displayed normal hippocampal size at the onset of disorder, but similarly reduced hippocampal

size as male schizophrenia Bucladesine in vivo patients after some years of illness had passed. Our results suggest preserved hippocampal size in women with schizophrenia during the first years of illness. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We studied the prognostic value of minimal disseminated disease (MDD) and anti-ALK immune response in children with NPM-ALK positive anaplastic-large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and evaluated their potential for risk stratification. NPM-ALK transcripts were analyzed Selleckchem Fulvestrant by RT-PCR in bone marrow/peripheral blood of 128 ALCL patients at diagnosis, whereas ALK antibody titers in 5-FU order plasma were assessed using an immunocytochemical approach. MDD was positive in 59% of patients and 96% showed an anti-ALK response. Using MDD and antibody titer results, patients could be divided into three biological risk groups (bRG) with different prognosis: high risk (bHR): MDD-positive

and antibody titer <= 1/750, 26/128 (20%); low risk (bLR): MDD negative and antibody titer >1/750, 40/128 (31%); intermediate risk (bIR): all remaining patients, 62/128 (48%). Progression-free survival was 28% (s.e., 9%), 68% (s.e, 6%) and 93% (s.e, 4%) for bHR, bIR and bLR, respectively (P<0.0001). Survival was 71% (s.e., 9%), 83% (s.e, 5%) and 98% (s.e 2%) for bHR, bIR and bLR (P=0.02). Only bHR and histology other than common type were predictive of higher risk of failure (hazard ratio 4.9 and 2.7, respectively) in multivariate analysis. Stratification of ALCL patients based on MDD and anti-ALK titer should be considered in future ALCL trials to optimize treatment. Leukemia (2013) 27, 416-422; doi:10.1038/leu.2012.205″
“We aimed to assess the association between core cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, regional brain atrophy and clinical severity in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) continuum, as well as to investigate how cognitive reserve (CR) may modulate these putative associations.

The notion that differences in RH are the primary cause leading t

The notion that differences in RH are the primary cause leading to adaptive evolution and speciation in CF-emitting bats by precipitating intraspecific differences in the mean call frequency of geographically isolated bat populations was not supported by the results of this case study. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Drinking water manganese (WMn) is a potential threat to children’s health due to its associations with a wide range of outcomes including cognitive, behavioral

and neuropsychological effects. Although adverse effects of Mn on cognitive function of the children indicate possible impact on their academic achievement little evidence on this issue is available. Moreover, little is known regarding potential interactions Lazertinib between exposure to Mn and other metals, especially water arsenic (WAs). In Araihazar,

a rural area of Bangladesh, we conducted a cross-sectional VX-809 chemical structure study of 840 children to investigate associations between WMn and WAs and academic achievement in mathematics and languages among elementary school-children, aged 8-11 years. Data on As and Mn exposure were collected from the participants at the baseline of an ongoing longitudinal study of school-based educational intervention. Annual scores of the study children in languages (Bangla and English) and mathematics were obtained from the academic achievement records of the elementary schools. WMn above the WHO standard of 400 mu g/L was associated with 6.4% score loss (95% Cl = -12.3 to -0.5) in mathematics achievement test scores, adjusted

for WAs and other sociodemographic variables. We did not find any statistically significant associations between WMn and academic achievement in either language. Neither WAs nor urinary As was significantly related to any of the three academic achievement scores. Our finding suggests that a large number of children in rural Bangladesh may experience deficits in mathematics due to high concentrations of Mn exposure in drinking water. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“MicroRNAs negatively regulate gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation and inhibiting mRNA translation. Recent studies have uncovered a cadre of muscle-specific microRNAs that regulate diverse aspects of muscle function, including Casein kinase 1 myoblast proliferation, differentiation, contractility and stress responsiveness. These myogenic microRNAs, which are encoded by bicistronic transcripts or are nestled within introns of myosin genes, modulate muscle functions by fine-tuning gene expression patterns or acting as ‘on-off’ switches. Muscle-specific microRNAs also participate in numerous diseases, including cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, congenital heart disease and muscular dystrophy. The myriad roles of microRNAs in muscle biology pose interesting prospects for their therapeutic manipulation in muscle disease.

“B cells follow two functionally distinct pathways of deve

“B cells follow two functionally distinct pathways of development: a classical

germinal center (GC) T-dependent pathway in which diversification and maturation generate a slow, but virtually unlimited high-affinity response to cognate antigens; and a marginal zone (MZ) T-independent pathway providing a first line of ‘innate-like’ defense against specific pathogens. Cells populating these two distinct locations are the normal counterparts SYN-117 order of two clinically important pathological entities, follicular lymphoma (FL) and MZ lymphoma (MZL). FL and MZ represent paradigms of two rising concepts of lymphomagenesis, protracted preclinical and antigen-driven lymphoproliferation, respectively. selleck products Integrating the mechanisms and functions of MZ and GC B cells and the distinctive features of their pathological counterparts should provide essential clues to the understanding of their malignant development, and should offer new insights into the design of effective treatments for B-cell lymphomas.”
“Accumulated evidence suggests that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in emotional disorders by acting on Y-1 and Y-2 receptors. This hypothesis

is based on animal studies carried out in naive normal animals but not in animal models of depression, including the olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) rat. The OBX rat produces a wide array of symptoms that mimic several aspects of human depression and anxiety disorders. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of sustained (2 weeks) intracerebroventricular Histone demethylase administration of NPY Y-1 and Y-2 agonists and antagonists in a battery of behavioral tests including the open field, forced swim test (FST) and social interaction (SI) tests in OBX rats. The levels of Y-1 and Y-2 receptors in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (BLA) were also evaluated. Treatment with the Y-1-like receptor agonist, [Leu(31)Pro(34)]PYY,

decreased both depressive- and anxiogenic-like behaviors. The Y-2 receptor antagonist, BIIE0246, decreased the immobility time in the FST in OBX animals and increased active contacts in the SI test in sham rats. The Y-2 agonist, PYY3-36, increased the immobility time in the FST in OBX rats. Additionally, increased levels of Y-2 receptor binding were quantified in the dorsal hippocampus and BLA in OBX rats. Taken together, the autoradiographic results add further evidence that the NPYergic system is altered in disturbed emotional states. Moreover, we demonstrate a differential role for NPY Y-1 and Y-2 receptors in emotional processes under control and challenged conditions.

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Anxiety and Depression’. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Atopy is suggested to be linked to the balance between levels of n-6 and n-3 series of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the diet.

Saliva samples were collected on 2 consecutive days at 9 specific

Saliva samples were collected on 2 consecutive days at 9 specific times with strict reference to time of morning awakening for evaluation of free cortisol,

reflecting secretory activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We quantified cortisol variations as the 2-day average slope of the awakening cortisol response and the subsequent diurnal levels.

Results: Men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome had more perceived stress and anxiety than controls (p <0.001). Brief Symptom Index scores were significantly increased in all scales (somatization, obsessive/compulsive Selleckchem Lorlatinib behavior, depression, anxiety, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism) for chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and Global Severity Index rank for chronic pelvic pain syndrome was 93rd vs 48th percentile for controls (p <0.0001). Men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome had significantly increased awakening cortisol responses, mean slope of 0.85 vs 0.59 for controls (p <0.05).

Conclusions: Men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome scored exceedingly high on all psychosocial variables and showed evidence of dysfunctional hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function reflected in augmented awakening cortisol responses . Observations suggest variables in biopsychosocial interaction that suggest

opportunities for neurophysiological study of relationships of stress and chronic pelvic pain syndrome.”
“Purpose: We clarified the long-term effects Vismodegib of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on renal function and blood pressure, and its relation to body mass index and type of lithotriptor.

Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients with a single radiopaque renal stone 2 cm or less in length were followed

for 18 to 57 months (mean 43.6 +/- 13.8) after being stone-free by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy monotherapy using 2 lithotriptors. Mean patient age was 47.9 +/- 9.1 years (range 23 to 66). Nuclear scintigraphy using (99m)technetium-mercaptoacetyltriglycine was done for all patients before extracorporeal shock wave Oxymatrine lithotripsy, as well as at the last followup visit to estimate glomerular filtration rate, clearance and split renal function. Blood pressure measurements were recorded at admission and at each followup visit.

Results: Before extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treated side mean (99m)technetium-mercaptoacetyltriglycine clearance, glomerular filtration rate and split function were 146.22 +/- 59.48, 52.66 +/- 13.69 and 49.7 +/- 7.31, respectively. At the last followup visit they were 145.1 +/- 58.82 (p = 0.842), 54.85 +/- 15.75 (p = 0.114) and 49.96 +/- 8.68 (p = 0.577), respectively.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that smooth muscle cells displa

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that smooth muscle cells display an altered transcriptome at atherosclerosis-prone locations before actual lesion development. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The present study investigated the contribution of episodic memory processes mediated by the medial temporal lobes to solving open-ended problems: problems for which standard solutions or set procedures for arriving at solutions GSK1210151A in vitro do not exist. Patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and excisions (TLE), older adults and control participants were asked to describe detailed solutions to various open-ended, social scenarios. TLE patients and older adults, both having deficits in episodic memory, provided fewer steps relevant

to the given solution than their comparison group. Segmenting the descriptions into details using the methods of the Autobiographical Interview, we also found that patients with TLE and older adults provided fewer internal (episodic) details but a similar number of external (semantic) details compared to their control group. These findings are the first to demonstrate that processes underlying episodic memory, in particular those enabling the retrieval of experiential detail and episodic simulation may contribute to open-ended problem solving. Given that we examined groups with medial temporal lobe lesions and known episodic memory dysfunction, these

results further suggest that the negative consequences of episodic memory loss Tangeritin resulting AZD0530 ic50 from damage to or deterioration of the medial temporal lobes extend beyond that of memory to include other domains, such as problem solving. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Extracellular matrix deposition is the main factor inducing stenotic lesions in arterial grafts. Lysyl oxidases (LOX) play a key role in stabilizing collagen and elastin. Objective: To examine the repair response to arterial allografts in terms of LOX expression and collagen/elastin deposition using LOX inhibitors. Methods: Lewis/Fisher-344 rats were used as donors/recipients.

Donor segments were grafted to the right iliac artery of recipients and retrieved 14/30 (short-term) or 90/180 days (long-term) after surgery. One group of animals was injected with a potent irreversible LOX inhibitor daily for 30 days. Results: Intimal hyperplasia increased in thickness until 90/180 days postsurgery. Elastin showed great expression in the neointima at 14/30 days and in the media at 90/180 days. LOX/LOXL1 were similarly expressed in the arterial wall during the first month. In the long term, their overexpression was confined to neointimal layers. At 14 days, collagen types I/III were identified in the grafts. The neointima acquired collagen I over time. In the group of animal treated with the LOX inhibitor, intimal hyperplasia was significantly inhibited. Conclusion: LOX were overexpressed in late stages of intimal hyperplasia in the allografts.

Despite many of these lineages displaying distinct

Despite many of these lineages displaying distinct Apoptosis inhibitor geographical distributions, it is apparent that almost all have emerged within the past 4 decades from either southern or east-central Africa. Collectively,

our results suggest that regular analysis of MSV-A genomes within these diversification hot spots could be used to monitor the emergence of future MSV-A lineages that could affect maize cultivation in Africa.”
“Selective attention involves the exclusion of irrelevant information in order to optimize perception of a single source of sensory input; failure to do so often results in the familiar phenomenon of distraction. The term ‘distraction’ broadly refers to a perceptual phenomenon. In the present study we attempted to find the electrophysiological correlates of distraction using an auditory discrimination task. EEG and event-related potential responses Rapamycin clinical trial to identical stimuli were compared under two levels of distraction (continuous broad-band noise or continuous speech). Relative to broad-band noise, the presence of a continuous speech signal in the unattended ear impaired task performance and also attenuated the N1 peak evoked by nontarget stimuli in the attended ear. As the magnitude of a peak in the event-related

potential waveform can be modulated by differences in intertrial power but also by differences in the stability of EEG phase across trials, we sought to characterize the effect of distraction on intertrial power and intertrial phase locking around the 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase latency of the N1. The presence of continuous speech resulted in a prominent reduction of theta EEG band intertrial phase locking around the latency of the N1. This suggests that distraction may act not only to disrupt a sensory gain mechanism but also to disrupt the temporal fidelity with which the brain responds to stimulus events. NeuroReport 23:240-245 (C)

2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“We cloned and expressed a gene encoding a thermostable cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from the thermophilic ascomycete Myriococcum thermophilum. The 2904 bp long open reading frame contained six introns located either close to the 5′- or 3′-end of the ORF. The corresponding cDNA of 2487 bp was cloned into the expression vector pPICZ alpha B to achieve inducible heterologous expression and secretion of the recombinant flavocytochrome in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Transformants were selected on media with normal and 10-fold increased zeocin concentration, and selected clones were tested for inducible extracellular production of the recombinant oxidoreductase. The maximally obtained volumetric activity was 0.25 U/ml in YPM (rich) medium and 2.15 U/ml in production stage (minimal) medium in a fed-batch fermentation. Recombinant CDH was purified in two consecutive chromatographic steps leading to a final specific activity of up to 7.4 U/mg protein at 40 degrees C.