I used a diverse collection of 13,501 high-quality full-length sequences to assess each of these questions. First, alignment quality had a significant impact on distance values and downstream analyses. Specifically, the greengenes alignment, which does a poor job of aligning variable regions, predicted higher genetic diversity, richness, and phylogenetic diversity than the SILVA and RDP-based alignments.
Second, the effect of different gap treatments in determining pairwise genetic distances was strongly affected by the variation in sequence length for a region; however, the effect of different calculation methods was subtle when determining the sample’s richness or phylogenetic diversity for a region. Third, applying a sequence mask to remove variable positions
had a profound impact on genetic distances HIF inhibitor by muting the observed richness and phylogenetic diversity. Finally, the genetic distances calculated Selleckchem U0126 for each of the variable regions did a poor job of correlating with the full-length gene. Thus, while it is tempting to apply traditional cutoff levels derived for full-length sequences to these shorter sequences, it is not advisable. Analysis of beta-diversity metrics showed that each of these factors can have a significant impact on the comparison of community membership and structure. Taken together, these results urge caution in the design and interpretation of analyses using pyrosequencing data.”
“This study examined the effects of
oil concentration and pH on the emulsifying and foaming characteristics of sesame protein concentrate (SESPC). SESPC was obtained through a simplified process, and its properties were compared with those of a commercial soybean concentrate (SOYPC). The simplified process did not affect the functional characteristics of SESPC, which were often similar or superior selleck chemicals llc to those of the SOYPC. The maximum emulsifying capacity of SESPC was 38% at an acidic and alkaline pH, while the maximum emulsifying capacity of SOYPC was 44% at the same pH. Emulsifying capacity increased significantly as oil concentration increased; in SESPC, this capacity increased from 7.8 to 60.0%, while in SOYPC it increased from 7.6 to 68.2%. The emulsion stability of SESPC was greater at an acidic pH (51%) than at an alkaline pH (45%); it was also higher than the emulsion stability of SOYPC. The maximum emulsion stability of SESPC (96%) was obtained at a sample concentration greater than 55 g L(-1) and oil concentration lees than 550 g L(-1) oil. Minimum (118.3%) and maximum (240%) levels of SESPC foaming capacity were higher than those obtained for SOYPC (92% as maximum). These findings show that SESPC may have potential use as raw matter in the food industry.