“Histamine H(1) receptor antagonists
(antihistamines) are widely used for the treatment of allergic disorders in young children. This study examined the effects of antihistamine on prefrontal cortex activity in preschool children using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an emerging brain-imaging method suitable for psychological experiments, especially in young children. We examined the changes of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration in the prefrontal cortex while children performed a spatial working memory task, 3 h after taking a first-generation antihistamine (ketotifen), second-generation antihistamine (epinastine), or placebo. Fifteen healthy preschool children (mean age, 5.5 years) participated. Ketotifen significantly impaired behavioral performance see more and cortical activation at the lateral prefrontal cortex in the working memory task, compared with epinastine and placebo. There were no sedative effects on neural response or behavioral performance after epinastine administration. This paper demonstrates for the first time differential sedation effects of first- and second-generation antihistamines on brain hemodynamic response in young children. Also discussed is the utility of the NIRS technique in neuropsychopharmacological studies of children. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“The present study investigated whether https://www.selleckchem.com/products/RO4929097.html several evaluative
indicators of subjective well-being (SWB) and subjective health decline as death approaches and which of them shows a stronger decline. Using three-wave longitudinal data from deceased participants of the Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study (N = 1,360; age range 75-94 at T1=Time 1), we found a stronger
decline in most evaluative indicators when plotted by distance-to-death relative to distance from birth. After controlling for background characteristics and physical and cognitive functioning, death-related decline was still found for SWB hot not for subjective health. Implications are discussed regarding the N,ell-being paradox and the yet unclear mechanisms that link evaluative indicators to the dying process.”
“The inositol depletion hypothesis proposes the inhibition of IMPase (myo-inositol monophosphatase) by lithium, a mood stabilizer, as a mechanism of lithium’s efficacy. This hypothesis predicts that the upregulation of this biochemical pathway may underlie the Niclosamide pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. In favor of this idea, IMPA2 encoding IMPase is a candidate susceptibility gene for bipolar disorder and that the risk-conferring single nucleotide polymorphisms enhance the promoter activity of IMPA2. However, it is yet unknown whether such upregulation has a biological role in bipolar disorder. To address this issue, we generated transgenic mice for the two IMPase genes (IMPA1 and IMPA2). The expression levels of the transgene were robust in IMPA2 Tg lines, but moderate in IMPA1 Tg lines, when compared to those of endogenous proteins.