It is shown that the waves scattering by surface roughness at the

It is shown that the waves scattering by surface roughness at the BSTO film interfaces is the main loss mechanism limiting the Q-factor of the BSTO thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators. (C) 2011 American

Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3626939]“
“Inferring the role of interactions in territorial animals relies upon accurate recordings of the behaviour of neighbouring individuals. Such accurate recordings are rarely available from field studies. As a result, quantification of the interaction mechanisms has often relied upon theoretical approaches, which Pexidartinib hitherto have been limited to comparisons of macroscopic population-level predictions from un-tested interaction models. Here we present a quantitative framework that possesses a microscopic testable hypothesis on the mechanism of conspecific avoidance mediated by olfactory signals in the form of scent marks. We find that the key parameters controlling territoriality are two: the average territory size, i.e. the inverse of the population AZD1480 research buy density, and the time span during which animal scent marks remain active. Since permanent

monitoring of a territorial border is not possible, scent marks need to function in the temporary absence of the resident. As chemical signals carried by the scent only last a finite amount of time, each animal needs to revisit territorial boundaries frequently and refresh its own scent marks in order PXD101 Epigenetics inhibitor to deter possible intruders. The size of the territory an animal can maintain is thus proportional to the time necessary for an animal to move between its own territorial boundaries. By using an agent-based model to take into account the possible spatio-temporal movement trajectories of individual animals, we show that the emerging territories are the result of a form of collective animal movement where, different to shoaling, flocking or herding, interactions are highly heterogeneous in space and time. The applicability

of our hypothesis has been tested with a prototypical territorial animal, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).”
“This article summarizes a concise investigation on the effect of concentration of the four main components of a novel lightweight drilling fluid, i.e., glass bubbles, xanthan gum, starch, and clay, to the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model parameters. The three parameters of Herschel-Bulkley model, i.e., yield stress, fluid consistency, and fluid index were calculated by fitting the experimental data of shear stress as a function of rate of shear to the model. Results indicate that the increment of the amount of four main components increase the yield stress of the final fluid as the flow resistance is increased.

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